ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 2867-0378

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2506-2664

Volume 43, Issue 66

Volume 43, Issue 66, Summer 2013, Page 1-646

AL-Zamakhs havi's stand for AL-Sabi'yo Reading in AL Kashshaf -Astady in Al-Sabi' AL-Mathanee and Long sura -

Ahmed Ibraheem Khidhir; Abdullah Hasan Ahmed

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 25-50

It has been found out that Al-Zamakhshary in his
book 'Al-Kashaf' prefers some recitations and considers others
weak. As the seven recitations are agreed upon, comparison is
not allowed.
It is our aim here to explore these phenomena in this
study untitled (Al-Zamakhshary's attitude tot he seven
recitations in 'Al-Kashaf': a study of the opening chapter (Al-
Fatiha) and the long surus. The first long sura is Al-Baqara
(The Cow), and the last one is Al-Tawba (Repentance). The
study gives Al-Zamakhshary's opinion and others' who agreed
with him. Then we give the scientific evidence to prove him
wrong, and that the two recitations are agreed upon and that
both were used by the prophet.

The Recitations Principles in Hafs's narration mentioned in Al-Shatibia and Al-Tayseer: collecting and guiding approach

Abdul Basit Abdul Karim

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 51-94

This research done for get the Guerdon from Allah and
showing the beautiful things of the Arabic langue. This
research very important to al- Tajweed students who reading
in prefect way. the Holy Qur'an this research appear the
number of principle in the the reading of hafs which is thirty
three but this subject need more search and additions.

The Modernizing in the Structure of Contemporary Islamic poetry

Ahmmad. J. Yasseen

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 95-118

This research includes a call for modernizing the
structure of the contemporary Islamic poetry which has four
basic elements: topic ،language ،imagery and rhythm in order
to make this poem goes along with its period, changes and
recent that took place in all of the fields of life From which
poetry can not be isolated.As a creative process ،poetry should
not stop at a certain strict border yet ،poetry ought to be
By renovation, flexibility and modernization, Poetry
represents one of the basic elements in the theory of Islamic
literature. Poetry is the most impressive genre on the receiver
due to its especial standing in the Islamic culture particularly
the language.Hence the basic aim of the research.
Hence, the desire of conservation this standing beside
activating the role of poetry in performing it’s a esthetic ،
emotional and communicational functions is one of most
important call of this research for modernization.
This process in order to be completed ،it is necessary to
make another modernization which goes a long with it.
This means to modernize the literary theory and its
technical and critical dimensions with protecting, at the same
time, the ideological substantial stabilities which have its deep
root down in its intellectual ground.
This research may represent a participation in this trend.

Arabicized and Foreign words in Tahtheeb AL-Lugha by AL-Azhari -Descriptive Study-

Muhamed S. Hameed; S. Majeed; Safaa

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 119-136

The present study deals with the topic (Arabicized and
Foreign word) It is one of the linguistic subject that was
attended to by the linguist and grammarians in the past and
present It is one the crossroads at which Arabic language meets
with other languages.
Most linguists agree that the term ( Arabicized means
that a foreign word used in Arabic but it is subjected to some
modification such deletion, additions or phonological
substitution in order to be used correctly in terms of the Arabic
rules. Some other linguists call it (Loaning).Whereas (Foreign
word), for the linguists, means that the word in used in Arabic
without any change made on it. It is used in Arabic as it was in
the origin language.

The Semantics of Verbs Assoeiated With Hellfire in the Glorious Quran

Muna F. Ismail Al-Halawachi

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 137-170

Undoubtedly, the Book of Allah, Glorious Qur’aan in
its inimitable style defies the minds and hearts. Both “Fire” and
“Heaven” are mentioned as a binary connoting arousal of an
interest in the case of reward and terrifying in the case of
punishment, respectively. There is a phenomenon which
attracts our attention in the Glorious Qur’aan as far as the
address of terrifying is concerned. This is represented in the
coupling of some verbs with the term “Fire” which is, in turn,
set as a residence for unbelievers in Dooemsday. This, the
present study, we aim at explaining the semantics of such a
binarity. The study is divided into two major sections: section١
deals with the semantics of the verbs related to movement, and
section ٢ deals with the verbs related to torture. Such a division
covers all the verbs coupled with the term “Fire” as mentioned
in the Glorious Qur’aan.

AL-Tariq Sura A Rhetorical- Analytical study

Amar Ismail Ahmed

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 171-204

This paper deals with a chapter of the glorious Quran that is
AL- Tariq chapter to investigate its miracle and the rhetoric of its
structure despite of its short verses, it contains different rhetoric
arts covers the type of Arabic rhetoric the chapter is based on
objective division rather than the traditional rhetoric one. The paper
is divided into three aspects.
١- swearing by heawn and its stars.
٢- showing the creation of man.
٣- discussing the holly Quran and the prophets, miracle.
This paper is concluded by the following the significance of
swearing by the Quran. the importance of questioning and its
influence on the receiver.

المظاهر العمرانية في مدينة مَارِدَة الأندلسية من الفتح حتى السقوط (94-628 هـ/ 713- 1230م)

Barzan Muyasser Hamid Ahmed

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 205-250

This research tackles the urban aspects of an Andalusian
city, which is known for its geographical location and the
strength of its defensive reinforcements. This city is Marda
which was the capital of the west Andalusian, and its
represented a living evidence of the Arabi-Islamic civilization.
S o, it acquired a prestigious status in architecture and the
elegance of construction which reached a high degree of
prosperity and development although the roots of the city date
back in deep history old ages. Yet, it is considered as an
architectural product for the buildings constructed in it, and the
architectural arts were diversified and prospered and that
indicate its cultural value and the interest of its inhabitants in
this respect.

The Social and Political Role of Zubaida, Al-Rashid's Wife

Aai; da Mohammed Ubaid

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 251-286

The Abbasid era is obviously considered one of the most
prosperous eras in the Islamic history politically, culturally,
and economically. During that era, many prominent women
figures were famous. Among them was Madam Zubeidah.
Zubeidah was the wife of the Abbasid Caliph, Haroon Al-
Rasheed. She had a little interest in politics, especially her
attempt to make she son, Al-Ameen, to assume power after his
father. Also, she produced effective literary works since she
took the wives of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as a perfect
example. It was known about her to adopt honoring attitudes in
different situations. The study patently shows these attitudes
and other contributions of this well-known women in various
aspects. The greatest achievement made by Zubeidah was
providing Makka with portable water to be used by the people
and pilgrims, and still we can observe, in our time, the remains
of that giant project.

Ethnic, Racial and National Diversity and Its on the Impaet on the Iraqi Political Arena

hamdan. R Muhammad

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 287-332

Find out targeted ethnic, ethnic, and national diversity
and its impact on the Iraqi political arena, because the ethnic
composition since the founding of the Iraqi state in ١٩٢١ has
become a big problem affects stability of the Iraqi state policies
because of political elites to power in Iraq.
It reflected the importance of this research from the
current circumstances through which Iraq where his future will
depend on the extent of harmony and adaptation between these
groups and sub-cultures. The researcher adopted a deductive
approach and inductive and deductive approach in addition to
the historical themes in the analysis of the subject.
The researcher has come up with a number of conclusions,
the most important that the standard of citizenship and good
governance, decentralization and representative of the benefits
and efficiency and ability, integrity and affiliation to the
homeland and loyalty is a alternative or the best solution out of
the crisis and to address our problems in a spirit of consensus
and harmony between the social components in Iraq and the
keenness of the Constitution to control the debugging the past
and achieve national unity.

Facebook as New Field for soeial interaction - A field study in mosul city Assist

Iinas Mahmood Abdullah

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 333-362

During the past decade the world has witnessed many
interrelated and complex changes such as the stride leap in
communication and media. Using the internet ،mobile phones
and satellite channels is an indication of human development in
any country. The various applications and tasks these services
offer turned them to a source of attraction to the teens and
young people. Some of the most attractive applications are the
famous social networks including Facebook and My Space.
They have become an integral part of life in many societies that
the number of subscribers have swelled tremendously. The
Arab world is more and more fascinated by facebook which
holds many personal information of the users such as private
parties photos ،and much more about their interests and
Therefore ،it is believed that this part of people's life
should be given more care in researches and studies not only in
electronic applications ،but in social studies as well. These
networks are truly affecting the society and its traditional
Facebook is one of the manifestations of communication
revolution ،it is an interaction tool that may give social reality a
new dimension ،it a has positive and negative effects depending
on the users themselves.
The aim of this study is investigating interaction patterns
resulting from using modern communication devices. To show
the effect the facebook has on these patterns ،to identify the
reasons behind its popularity ،and to unveil the social outcomes
associated with this pattern. This study has adopted a fieldwork
that included ٥٠ young test-subjects who have accounts on
The study has come up with the following:
١- Facebook is a modern phenomenon that has appeawed
showed up in our society and has rapidly spread and became an
essential part of young peoples lives.
٢- The test-subjects ،the young in particular ،try to establish
new friendships and to broaden their relations with others.
٣- Young people try to find lost space of social and political
freedom in their societies ،and to express their opinions.
٤- Test-subjects attempt to make changes in their societies by
spreading and looking for new ideas on facebook.
Finally ،we would like to offer the following recommendations:
١- Guiding people towards an optimum use of social sites in a
way that best serve our own Arabic culture.
٢- Consolidating self control and consciousness among young
٣- Internet is a public service and not a private one ،therefore
we are supposed to behave in a way that suits such public
service. Moreover its important to remember the consequences
of what we may post or publish in networks and to be aware of
what is being written or read of photos and texts.
٤- Strengthening and encouraging our own institutions
including the family, by supporting constructive dialogue
among its members, and given them more freedom to express
their political, social and cultural ideas that make them stay
away from other sources.

Information Illiteracy in the Academic community

Amar Abdulatif Zamabideen

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 363-394

The study deals with the concept of Information Illiteracy
in the academic community. It deals with the reasons of
Information Illiteracy and tries to recognize the types of
Illiteracy prevailing in the academic community (the College of
Arts as a sample) through a questionnaire of six questions
dealing with the concept of Information Illiteracy. The
questionnaire was distributed to (25%) of the study community
as sample making (72) faculty members. The study concludes
that the Illiteracy at the College community is a technical,
computer , Internet and Information Illiteracy with different
percentages. The study discussed the necessary requirements
needed by the academic community if it intended to abolish
Illiteracy in it. The study contains nine charts and one table.

Architectural Planning of in Mosul during the Islamic Age to the End of Ottoman One

Akram Mohammad yahya

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 395-432

Establishing (Government) and planning them are
considered of the first architectural works that accompanied the
spread of Islam in and out of the Arabian Peninsula. Thus، they
became one of the most significant axes of planning the Islamic
city and expanding its architectures. As it was first planning the
mosque and then establishing office at a neighbor place in the
city centre at a distinct and fortified locations. It has taken its
name (castle of Government) since the early Islamic era and it
has been known as (Qasr Al-Emarah) since the era of the ٢nd
caliph Omar bin Al-Khattab to be a followed as tradition at all
cities and countries as a result of the Islamic Liberations and
that expanded to free Yemen، Levant and Egypt besides all
Iraqi cities، especially Mosul city (the subject matter) in which
establishing and planning them drew a great attention since the
beginning of the Islamic liberation in (١٦ A. H. – ٦٣٧A. D.) at
the era of Omar bin Al-Khattab who established، in which، the
first at the Islamic era was near the mosque on the hill of
Qulaia’at over looking at Tigris. It witnessed a considerable
development in its architectures and the style of their planning
during the following Islamic eras. Thus its role increased
greater and its area expanded. Its name diversified with its
locations. In which، houses and palaces were established to
perform the functions and tasks of office of government which
took the characteristic and name of the palace (Qassr). Its
remains are still observed with its unique location at the west
bank of Tigris، at the eastern north of old Mosul city near the
old castle of Mosul (Bashttabya) and shrine of Imam Hassan.
The political and administrative role of this castle increased
during the Arab and Islamic eras to represent the house of the
governor (Wali)، his family، entourage and relatives beside
being the official headquarter of state administration، records and staff of all civil، political and military tasks. Its role
increased after the fall of Arab caliphate and the appearance of
foreign governments، especially at the era of Ottoman state .

Mosques A Rostrum Hamo Al-Qadu and Sheikh Abdal in Mosul

Wassan Abd AL Mutalb Hassan

اداب الرافدین, 2013, السنة 43, العدد 66, الصفحة 433-460

A is considered as an absolute Islamic invention and a necessary religious idea as a stage which a speaker stands to perform his speech. Historic resources mentioned that a rostrum was introduced in mosques since the Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessings be upon him) time in (7H/628G) when he was standing on atree-trunk and then they replaced it by a rostrum made from wood and equipped with two stairs and chair. After that in the age of Al-Rashidun Caliphs as it was developed into many kinds and shapes and mobile rostrums. In the Abbasid age , a kind of fixed rostrums were have been as that one in Abi Dalaf Mosque (245A.H/859A.G) which was made of bricks and chalk (kinde of limestone) and the rostrum of Al Amadiya Mosque (548/1153) which was made of woods.
As for the city of Mosul in the Ottoman dynasty, the researchers divided that age into three eras: the time of Ottoman rulers , the time for local (Al Jalili rule) , as for third time which is point of this research , it was the time of this central administration which had been well-Known by the work of its men to seek the national independence. This seeking affected the city badly causing a recession in the architectural fields. However, those platforms embodies part of the legacy of Architecture, for that era, marked by the development of large it worked and marble-sized, as the the case with the rostrum Hamo Al-Qadu and Sheikh Abdal, so it was a matter of selection of these rostrums is not studied in a scientific integrated in terms of the investigating the scientific elements. It studies geometric element and and technical analysis whereas floral motifs and written inscription required archaeological studies, especially Islamic ones, as we will see in the pages of our search is.