ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 0378-2867

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2664-2506

Volume 8, Issue 64

Volume 8, Issue 64, Autumn 2012, Page 1-586

A Phonetic Investigation of Al-Ikhlaas Sura

Rafi; A. Mallo; Azza A. Ahmed

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 1-10

Investigating Al-Ikhlaas (faithfulness/ sincerity) phonetically has uncovered its underlying theme of monotheism, which is reflected in the alternate recurrence of the palatalized and velarized forms of the alveolar lateral /1/. The meaning is deduced to be the result of the consistent syntactic structuring, semantic indication, unification of the verse rhymes, and the quality of the long vowels in the sura.
Al-Ikhlass is significant also in that it contains five words, out of its fifteen constituent words, that have not recurred else where in the Qur'an with the same structures and meanings. These words thus constitute 5:15, i.e. one third of the total number of words in the sura. Taking into consideration that Al-Ikhlaas alone is considered to be equivalent to one third of the number becomes of great significance.
The glorious Qur'an constitutes two parts: prediction and composition. Prediction is also seen as two parts, about the creator, and about creation (or the human being). Al-Ikhlaas is solely devoted to prediction about the creator ; it states the truth about Allah. Accordingly, it is considered one third of the Qur'an.

Reading of the Concept of Modernization by Odeneis

Aysar Mohammed F. AL-Dbow

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 11-56

The Modernization lesson is regarded today as a place where many poets go around without any obstacle that reduces their freedoms and ideas. Modernization which carried a western attribute with excellence allowed many poets to access the garment of modernization as they found it an easy way to reach the glory. In addition to have enough capability of ideas and dissertations which raised the innovative measurement that the Arabic poetry lacked for many centuries, the most important thing of his achievements is (the Prose Poem) which had the greatest role of showing many poets in the Arab land with a language closer to the colloquial and with a music that the heart and brain refuse it. The most prominent of the poets and literary men is Ahmed bin Ali (named Odeneis) who invested these bits of information consciously and accurately. Thus, this paper came to tackle how the giant modernizer has invested these techniques and submitted it to ideology, literature and culture. The researcher has made stops at interpretations, ambiguity, signs, and symbols in order to analyze the ideology of Odeneis’s mind which could climb the ladder of peace and get high fame and reach the aim without looking at the means. Therefore, he mastered the art of playing with the word, dealt with it competently and invested the techniques of modernization when he has been the famous knight in the twentieth century until present time. This research reflects the extent to which Odeneis invested the term (modernization) from literary, ideological and cultural point of view and all the fields and types of knowledge.

Russian Orientalist Kraczkowski's Efforts in History of Arabic Literature

Faris Aziz Al-Mudarris

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 57-96

This research is an attempt to examine the efforts of the Russian orientalist Kraczkowski. Russian efforts in the field of orientalism have scientific and academic features that, generally, excel those of the Western orientalism due to their capacity, inclusiveness and political impartiality. Kraczkowski plays an important role in exploring Arabic and Islamic heritage. His efforts are still like a window of the Islamic East on the Western world and not only Russia. Besides his endevours in the history of Arabic literature, he had interests in the fields of manuscripts, biography, general travels and literary writing. He wrote many of the most significant researches in the Arabic literature history. He studied Arabic literature movement from the pre-Islamic era to modern times and specialized in modern literature as well. This research presents Kraczkowski's views, methodology and objectives, demonstrating the impartial and serious characteristics of his orientations.

The use of the Sufi Terms in AL- shushturis Poetry

Nizar Shakoor Shakir

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 97-132

The present study investigates the dimensions of employing the concepts of Sufism in the poetry of Shishetry in the light of mystery, intoxication, alcoholic beverage, mortality, goblet, being, and connection. And this is achieved by following the theoretical and practical method which contributes in building the structural status needed for the semantic approach in the frame of the literary versification. According to this frame, certain concepts with certain dimensions appear which are closely related to the intellectual and artistic trend of the Sufi poet. These concepts are characterized by firm values .

The Book: "Manaqib Baghdad", mistakenly ascribed to Ibn AlJawzi

Shaqeeb R. Basheer

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 133-168

Books of Islamic heritage are considered a vast field to understand the past and its items. The latter can be done in the right way as books should be studied, scrutinized and reconsidered. The book "Manaqib Baghdad" was published by Mohammed Bahjat AlAthari in 1924 A. D. and attributed to Abi AlFaraj Ibn AlJawzi (died in 597 A. H./ 1200 A. D.). While the latter has a book of the same title but it is was lost as the findings of the research have shown. The book that has been published by AlAthari is not written by Ibn AlJawzi especially as it contained events that took place after the death of Ibn AlJawzi. Five scholars in the field of heritage books have studied this subject, but they did not deal with the text of the book critically.

zaid Ibn Haritha (A Historical Study in his Autobiography)

Omar Amgad Saleh

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 169-206

The first companions biography and life represented a model and a sample of human completion in obeying Allah, Where history did not know men like them characterized by justice and highness. They sacrificed themselves with high encouragement for this life, and one of these companions was Zaid Ibn Haritha, the martyr prince in Mu'tta Raid, the master of Al-Mawali, the first Muslim, the Prophet's beloved, and Allah did not name anyone with his name accept Zaid. The man who was short, brown, snub-nosed, the one who found for himself a place in the Prophet's heart (Peace and blessings be upon him), Allah said: (The most honorable of you will Allâh is that (believer) who has Al-Taqwâ). Also the Prophet said: (There is no difference between Arabs and non-Arabs accept with fear of God), where in this brighter religion Bilal, Suhaib, Ammar, Khabab, Usama and Zaid are near to Allah in the highest Paradise.

Modern communication techniques and their productive and social effects:A Field study of Ninavah company for drugs and medical requirements.

Jumaa Jassim Khalaf

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 207-244

This research tackles the modern communication techniques which are manifested by satellite channels, cell phones, and the internet, and their productive and social effects. Modernي communication techniques have provided many services to communicate information such as the e-mail and remote conferences. The man powers in the information sector increased on the one hand. But, on the other hand, the wide-spreading of applying the information technology would lead to making man refrain from participating positively in the society.
The sample of the research included 100 individuals. The research has depended on the social survey model by using the sample, and used a measurement tool to collect data. The research has posed some hypotheses to be verified in the light of the data collected from the sample.

Providing electronic information services in libraries using the techniques of modern

Moayad Yhaya Khudhair

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 245-276

One of the essential duties of any educational institution is to link the educational process with the development requirements. Thus, the success of any educational system is achieved by responding to the necessary needs of the community that required the development. Any follower to the information services could see clearly the rapid development of technologies in improving the libraries, especially computers and information systems. The libraries are considered as one of the most important centers of education. Also, the libraries of any university must reflect the latest modern means of education to become a center for information sources. Hence, this study shows the extent of the progress of international and Arabic libraries through the use of modern technologies and the shift from traditional paper-based methods in providing its services to the electronic methods. After viewing different experiences of libraries, such as the University of Jordan, the Library of Alexandria, the University of Technology in Baghdad, the University of Cornfield in the United Kingdom and the British Library public, the survey has a number of conclusions and recommendations. The libraries have a prominent role in the developed countries to continue with the information revolution, and to reach the community in fast, accurate way and throughout the day without stopping.

The State of the Practical Application by Students at Department of Information and Technology and Libraries/ Institute of Administration-Al-Rusafa: A Developmental Evaluative Study

Seenaa; Shimal Mushib; Tayseer Fawzi Radeef

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 277-316

The practical application is considered the active instrument to habilitate scientific and technical staff if it is applied to what has been studied before. It is considered a scientific connecting instrument between theory and practice and in it lies the importance of this research which tries to explain the central role played by the practical application to elevate students' scientific level and tries to show the applicability of the texts and the instruments of scientific application and their fitness to the students needs at the Administration Institute – Al-Rusafa – information technology and libraries department The research has answered few questions such as:
 Is the place and time of the application suitable and does it fit the needs of the practical application ?
The research has come out with some results, the most important of which are:
 The time of the practical application coincides with two events, namely the summer vacation and the month of Ramadan and both of them are considered exhausting period for the student and the supervisor who wakens the work.
The recommendation is to make the program of the practical application something minor that should be studied through the academic year, instead of the summer vacation and the assignment of some of the professors to the department as practical and scientific supervisors at the same time.

The philosophical nature of Discarts

Ziyad Kamal Mustafa

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 317-350

Discards natural philosophy is esscntial in his general philosophy as it occurs between metaphysics and the applied branches of physics represented by medicine, mechanics and ethics, and the rest of sciences this means that Disc art considers nature having general intellectual origins and at the same time it has logical, mathematical-geometrical extents. Thus exploring natural philosophy is regarded as failed including Discard s doctrine accord itself .
The physical existence is the origin of metaphysics , and it is based on the continuous creation theory .The physical research demands an intellectual method to achieve the idea of supremacy over nature because nature is not essential images neither is it " Aristotelian qualities", but it is a ( quantity ) that can be measured and calculated , so there is no way to explain the natural phenomena and the changes that occur except through three laws : The ( incompetence of matter, reserving motion and the direct motion ) , This is the new worlds hypothesis .

A study of Abbaside coins in the British Museum

Ali Kadhim Abbas Al-Sheikh

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 351-386

It is clear from the papers concerning money that a coin
cannot be neglected and depended upon by the researchers and
learners in much matters where the accurate information which
engraved on it like: Islamic western towns ,years different
designs distinct next of it and etc…
The present study is one of the archeological studies related to
a number of Abbasside caliphs by means of their money in an
important era extended from 298-339 A.H
The investigation also deals with the political and economic
domains at this time. In addition, different golden and silver
coins found in British museum have been investigated by researchers which they are about (30) coins among which a comparable dinar dated to al-Radibillah (325AH)
The money in this study is investigated scientifically according to their time succession, i.e., begins with al-muktafibillah (289-2952AH). For instance, a number of scattered dirhams and dinars of some caliphs mentioned earlier in this research.
Finally a great deal of thanks is due to the staff of the British museum for their help to achieve this study .

Corbels in Mosul City Houses during the Othoman Period

dallah Mahdi; Rana Wa

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 387-414

Across ages, the architect had a significant role in the development and the innovation of new elements in the Islamic architecture to make it looks fascinating. Undoubtedly, the accumulated experience of the architect has an important role in the element of innovation. Thus,
sometimes he worked on finding one or more elements in the architecture which reflect an ornamental and constructive function, and some other times he worked on mixing between many elements to form or produce new architectural elements that he makes use of. Moreover,
there have been some environmental problems that have their influence on constructing and maintaining buildings in the Islamic architecture. However, some conclusions have been made. After demonstrating the details of the topics of this paper ،we came up with the following: - The element of inventing corbels in the Mosull Houses architecture for the purpose of treating some constructing. . . . . . . . . - This architectural element has been used to treat the unorganized ground Schema for the houses facade which overlook the unorganized allies. - It seems that the architeci invented the corbels element and used it instead of the stalactites element by converting the square shape to circle preparing to establish the dome element above in addition to using it to carry the shanasheel which is one of the important carving elements in the Islamic architecture in Mosul - The architecture decided to use the corbels as a carving element by putting it on the both sides of the Awaween to reflect aesthetic ornamental facades which face the courtyard. In addition to the functional benefit of the corbels by hanging a rope to climb up to the Akhsheem - Many shapes of this element appeared in the Mousill Houses architecture such as corbeling double conical octagonand and triangular which has its base up and its head down in addition to decorate its Surfaces with carvings. - The architect used many constructing materials in forming this element on the buildings such as Mousili marble stones and the woods.

Forms of Salutation in the Assyrion Correspondence and Sculpture

Nasreen Ahmed Abid

اداب الرافدین, السنة 42, العدد 64, الصفحة 415-446

Salutation and greeting was one of the distinguished ceremonies for the Assyrians which express good manners between individuals. It was also considered one of the basic rules of civility and high level communication at that time. The study of the various texts contents especially letters texts showed different ways of the concepts of salutation and greeting when they were sent between the individuals, or when a low level person communicated with a superior person e. g. the letters were sent by the rulers and Assyrian officials to the kings. There was a way to send a salutation from the governing king to the governed one. There were also ways to exchange salutation between the equivalent kings according to authority and rank.This expression of peace had been mentioned to express the concept of hospitality and greeting in the Sumerian language in the form SILIM, DI or Di-mu, which is the equivalent of šulmu in the Akkadian language as the meaning of peace, health, security and safety. It also expressed the concept of hospitality and greeting. This study depends on showing some relative Assyrian artistic scenes which reflects how to salute handing by hands to express greeting and peace, raising the right hand also to express greeting and salutation which indicates how old this ceremonial tradition is and reflects the civilized civility of the Assyrians at that time.