ISSN: 0378-2867

Volume 41, Issue 59

Volume 41, Issue 59, Winter 2011, Page 1-823

The Plural and Its Semantics in Arabic Speech

Abdul Wahab Mahmood Al Kuhla

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 1-9

This research is not for the purpose of studying of its subjects. To put differently, it can not be covered by several pages, but, instead of that, this subject that are comparable to this research.
This paper reveals the aspects of using the plural and revealing its consistency with the speech context , and the speaker purpose , especially , those in Holy Quran verses to unveil its rhetorical miraculous.
The significance of this study is owing to many considerations; one of whibh is that the rules are based upon speech according to the type of plural.
By this work , the way might have been paved to other scholars to complete what this paper has started with.

Disease Expressions Compiled by Ibn As-Sikkeet

Rawa M. Al-Zarary

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 32-51

This research is extended from a previous one which was entitled as"Disease Field in Ibn Al-Sekkeet(233 H.): A study in synonymy and symptoms". Both of the two researches fall in the same stream, and both are related to the same semantic field which is: Disease field in Ibn Al Sekkeet. This study is concerned with the names of diseases and the recovery from them. The study, then, falls in two parts. We named the first one as"names of diseases"and the second one as"terms of recovery". The number of the term in both parts was identical: ten for each one. We mentioned in the first part the purpose of naming each disease. Some of these names were derived from the infected organ or the reason or the cause or the effect left by that disease.As for the second part, which is named as"terms of recovery". We did not call it healing, for example, because the latter may mean the disappearance of the symptoms but not the end of the disease. This is so because the meaning of recovery is the complete healing of the disease.

The Concept of the "Tex"t in the Contemporary Arabic Discourse: The Vision of Nasr Hamed Abu Zeid as a Model: A Critical Study

Ahmad Adnan Hamdi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 52-79

The term "text" has witnessed a great concern in contemporary western and Arabic studies. Many studies tackled this topic in various scientific fields such as social, psychological, literary studiesetc up to the time that this topic had its own scientific term called (The Science of Text). This science has dealt with studies tackling the conception of this text, the method of learning it, its fields and common related terminologies. This research will tackle the study of the book entitled (The concept of the text: A study in Quraُnic Sciences by Nasr Hamed Abu Zeid). This book was one of the contemporary Arabic writings which applied the western critical methods taking into considerations their concepts, terminologies, and backgrounds. It aims at studying the Quraُnic text.The research will deal with the followings: First: Nasr Abu Zeid's conception of the text, particularly the Quranic text. Second: How did Abu Zaid read the Quraُnic text? Third: Criticizing his concept and method.

The Impact of Title and Its References in the IraqiNovel: The novel " There is no hope for Gilgamesh"as a model

Warka Y. Kasim Al-Maadeede

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 80-114

The study aims at showing the impact of the title and its references in the Iraqi novel as a semantic structure. It carries an intellectual reference as a part of the text strategy that invokes the receiver to enter the world of the text.The study includes analyzing the novel " There is no hope for Gilgamesh", written by the Iraqi novelist Khudayyer AbdulAmeer, whose novel is classified as one of the novels that embodies the heroic action in history. The novelist employed Gilgamesh epic, the odyssey of ancient Iraq. The novel deals with man struggle whose aim is to gain the spell of eternity, that we find the contextual relationship between the text of the epic and the novel text. Behind this the writer's goal hides in making a suggestive relationship between past – with all its references – and the vivid present, which represents the challenge to ward off the danger of extinction which is a normal result of the human's life.

Place in The Arabian NightsByNajib Mahfuz

Sarwa Younis Ahmad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 115-133

In this study ,We tried to examine closely the place in the Arabian Nights by Najeeb Mahfuz. He presents real (world in many sides and in an odd atmosphere which forms as a symbol of human being movement between material and spirit. There is destruction of barriers between tenses and places specially he utilized the originality of place in the tales in its beautiful places. Also the oddness that we see that he could succeed to creat an imaginay and charmed atmosphere that it has fascination as well as the amazement of the past we see him creating the secondary re-prepare after forming. Trying to forma machinism of connection between past and present events with textural relation, within this place, he presentsa fact and many things from his community that he is'nt able to express about, those places with their characters.The writer melts borders between reality and imagination in order to try to arrive to an ideal place. Similarlyit also found in (shahraiar) to get rid of life contraries to compensate psychologically from successive frustration inside the limited space .

Autobiography: Concept and Development

Ahmed Taha Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 133-149

Autobiography is a recent literary trend in comparison with other literary trends. It is a full account of important literary figures.It contains their experiences whether pleasant or not as well as important lessons or messages to the reader presented in an interesting influential style.This research tackles the "Autobiography" as a literary type distinct from biography and other related litrary types.Then، a Light is shed on the devlopment of autopigraohy in both western and Arabic literature.

he Morphological Term in Meaning of Al- Quran upon Al-Farah

Hassan Assad Mohammad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 150-180

Speech morphology in Arabic language is a very useful science because it deals with word structure morphologically. It also deals with language derivation, its tenses, and what is added to words in letters, accent besides the affixes. Ibn Jinni, the Arab linguist, says: this type of science, the inflection is much needed by the linguists because the nature of Arabic speech is known especially in affixes and derivation can not be distinguishes of without it( (. Thus intended this terminology of Al-Fara together with the subject of Al-Quran's meaning terminology. Al-Fara in this research is not the only one who dealt with morphological terms and the Kufis, but his terms are rather of Basrhi ones. So I divided such terms in this following way: verb inflection, noun inflection, the joint inflection between them.

The Mongolian Empire(A study in the rise and the conflict ofdynasty for the great Kahn)(603-766A.H / 1206-1365A.D)

Ragd Abd-Alkreem Ahmad; Alai Mahmood Khalil Kadawy

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 181-310

Historically the Mongolian period is considered as one of the most horrible one, and the most painful. It has destroyed regions such as China, Middle Asia Iran, Iraq and Eastern Europe. All of these regions, in turn, constituted the Mongolian Empire. The subject of this Empire is an important one in the Arabian and Islamic history. It is not less than the study of the Crusades. In that part of Arabian and Islamic history related to this Empire beginning from the fall of the Khawarizm State and Abbaside Caliphate and the effectiveness of the this conversion on their relations with Islamic powers, especially the Mamluk state in Egypt and Syria. This conreetion made the ultimate understanding of the different aspects of this Empire which in turn urged the researcher to study one of these aspects, i.e to study subject entitled (The Ruling Dynasty Conflict on the Succession of Power in Mongolian Empire) . This study consist of introduction and four chapters. The introduction tackles the Mongol's early history where the researcher explained who are the Mongol, their migration and struggle to servive, as well as the roughly time for the appearance of Mongol term, and the historical narratives which studied their origins and political conflicts. The first chapter entitled "Temojen and the establishment of his Empire". It also includes the studying of the significant tribes in Mongolia, Temojen's growth, his political conflicts, how it comes to him to unify Mongolia and establish his Empire and then, divided the Empire amongst his four sons. The second chapter entitled "The Ruling Royal Dynasty Conflict on the Post of Al-khan Adham", deals with the political conflicts happened amongst Chingiz Khan's sons and grandsons about the post of al-khan al-A'dham, and what has witnessed of associated wars in addition to insurrection movements beginning from the conflict about succession of Ogadai Khan, and ending with the collapse of Qublai Khan in China.

Goldzehers View of the Islamic Sects in His Book Dogma and Sharia in Islam

Nayif M. Al-Muteoti Abstract

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 311-331

The Research tackles Goldzehers View of the Islamic sects in his book Dogma and Sharia in Islam. It begins with a brief account of Goldzehers life. Among his famous books is Dogma and Sharia in Islam in which he dealt with the most important dogmatic and legislative issues in Islam. from the appearance of the Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessings upon him). He also discussed the dogmatic divisions. Hence this research aims at explaining Kharrijities view of Islamic sect, and their dogmatic opinions. Although he devoted a section to talk about these sects , he confined himself to talk about Shia and Kharrijities. The rest of the sects is discussed in the section assigned to the dogmatic difference in which he gave a sufficient account of the Islamic dogma from the perspective of alul Sunna then moved to handle heresies that came from some sects like Almurjia Aljabryia, Almushabbiha, Almujassima and Almutazila Furtherouore, he presented the opinions of Alashaira and Almaturedyia Finally, the research sheds light on the mistakes committed by Goldzeher reviewing the most valuable results obtained from his analysis of the opinion and beliefs of Islamic sects.

A critical study of Thomas Arnold's views about Islam in Africa, south of Sahara until the 9th century AH/15th century AD

Bashar Akram Jameel

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 332-353

The Europeans were greatly interested in Africa south of Sahara. So many books were written about the history of Islam in general and in Africa in particular. Some of these writings were fair, whereas others were unjust. One of those writers is the orientalist Thomas Arnold through his book "Call to Islam". In this book Arnold tackles spreading of Islam in various places, particularly in Africa.
The writer tackles African history into two chapters out of thirteen chapters of the book. He discussed in the first chapter the matter of spreading Islam among the Christians of Africa especially after the gradual declination of the Christian Church and the arrival of Muslims to "Nuba" (now Republic of Sudan). He discussed that history up to the 18th and 19th centuries. In the other chapter, the writer explains how Islam reached east and west coasts of Africa concentrating on the methods adopted by the Muslim propagandists to spread Islam.
Arnold's view about the stages of spreading Islam in Africa, south of Sahara, is tackled and the texts which assure the peaceful spread of Islam are shown. Then the mistakes which the writer fell into are shown and corrected. True historical evidence is scientifically used to criticize and correct his narrations.

Contemporary Secessionist Trends in Caucasus:South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Nagorno- Karabakh

Abkhazia; Contemporary Secessionist Trends in Caucasus; Nagorno- Karabakh; South Ossetia

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 354-383

Often the region of Caucuses has been a conflict field. The main reason is the contradiction of nationality and religion. During history of region there were secessionist trends, independence movements and the supremacy attempts of majority over coexisting minority. The most of violence and victims is in: South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Nagorno- Karabakh.The important character of these problems is the freezing from round to another, as the belligerent parties have not come to a harmonious solution that guarantees the interests of all who see that time is the desired solution, besides, international attitude is not active. The secessionist affairs were used in Caucuses as pressures in political bargaining among concerned world powers.

Some of Social Change of Iraqi Society underAmerican OccupationA Field Study in the Frame of Sociology

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 386-414

Social knowledge is formed in the light of the variables of civilization, past, present, future, cultural contact, production power and philosophy.All these variables work together to form a cultural pattern that distinguishes the behavior of the society it stems from. However , it is not necessary that all these variables work together or have equal role in knowledge formation . One variable may has priority over others for one reason or another.Undoubtedly, Iraq accupation on April 4th 2003 caused an extreme change in the political map. There also followed plans to change the social and demographic structure. All these variables comewith a change in the social knowledge. This was reflected on the social structure of the Iraqi society. To show this social change, the study came out in three sections . The first represents the theoretical background of the research. It includes the research problem, its importance, aim, samples, methodology, tools and fields.As for the second section, it includes a theoretical approach to the methodology of knowledge sociology and social change in the Iraqi society.The third section, however, tackles the axes of the Iraqi social structure and social change at the onset of American invasion of Iraq.Each of the axis of the social structure ends up with a summary of the most important results it comes up with. The research ends up with a conclusion that includes a comment on Ocobron theory and the reasons behind social change in its light.

The Development Prospective of IslamAn Alytic Study in the frame ork of Development in the Social System

Shallal hamid suliman

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 415-438

Islam is a religion attempts to invest all of the human phenomena as well as to employ them adorationally , psychologically ,socially and economically in aaway to be useful for all the member of the society. Islam has restricted an accurate method for the muslem to hold the rein of the initiative in his daily life in order not to hase his time and to overcome all the tendencies of laziness and the aspects of the humanweakness. By deriving its justifications from the human nature Islam has dealt with the human nature and worked to clear it up applying its effectiveness to all the details of life as well as all the feature of manners.Throrghout the social system of Islam , it has restricted an accura mechanism in order to renew the vitality of man and to reiforce his activity in a dynamic way. Then, Islam has restricted the general frame work of the social interation process. Thus it restricted the common features of social behaviour and depended on the mechanism of favoriting the passive reward to reinforce the process of obedience and observing the requirements of the social system as well as keeping its dignity.

The contribution graduates of the Department of Sociology in Development

Harith Hazem Ayoub

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 439-458

The development needs to qualified human resources ,these cadres slice graduates, including graduates of the Department of Sociology. from here We research came to trying to identify the contribution graduates of sociology at the development. Our research has included four themes dealt with the first axis the methodological framework for research, while addressing, the second axis, the foundations that qualify the individual to enter the development sectors ,The third focused on the future prospects for the entry of sociology graduates to development sectors and The fourth axis the most important findings and recommendations.

Demographic znd the Urban Crowdedness/ a Theoretical study in the Urban sociology

Nadya Sabaeh Mahmood

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 459-488

There is an interactive and controversial relaionship that could be described as a direct on between the city as a fact characterized by urbanism on one hand and the demographic and urban increase on the other. When the relatives of the crowdedness decrease the degree of the urbanism becomes weak. It is found out that the demographic development and the centering of the services in the cities and capitals of the developing countries to which there will be migration, all these matlers will lead to increase the crowdedness. It is also noticed that there is a kind of diflerence between the advanced country that was able to face the urban challenges the main one among them is the crowdedness and the developing countries, among them the Arab countries which suffer from problems of crowdedness on the social and healthy services while on the level of the entire crowdedness and its containment it is found out that it is comprehensive in the advanced countries while it is reltive in the developing countries because it mostly prevailed the advanced countries and decreased in the developing countries in some of its main cities namely the capital ones.

Mosuli and Baghdadi Societies: A social comparative study

Enas Mohamad Azeez

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 488-513

The importance of our research is a simple attempt to discover the characteristics of mosuli and Baghdadi character from humanity the study attampt to produce the relationship between the perspective individuals and the sociological environment. Similarly, we try to know the aspeds of similarity and difference between two characters through the comparison between them.The research contains two sides the first side represents the theoretical side which takes the importance of research and its aim and conception and the nature of mosuli and Baghdadi societies. As for the field part, it presents information which specify the sample of research that consiots of (50) individuals.

King Hamurrabi's Role in the Babylonian Jurisdiction

Muhammad Al-Bakri

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 523-514

King Hamurrabi is one of the distinguished kings in Mesopotamia for the great achievements he accomplished during his reign one of which was his achievement in the field of Babylonian Jurisdiction. He started a radical change in the administration of Judicial affairs and the appointment of judges. He is considered the supreme judge of the state who looked into the various legal cases. He was keen on issuing decrees which helped a lot in the development of the Babylonian Jurisdiction. Before the end of his reign, he issued a Famous law which is considered as one of the most important legal documents in the ancient near East.

Temples in the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom Between Sanctity and Sacrilege

Safwan Sami Saeed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 533-552

Temples and their rights was of great responsibility towards kings, governors and peoples. Any neglect of offering, building or rebuilding was reflected in the Assyrian inscription and corresponding. Their duty and the responsibility towards those who may not respect these religious places. This research is regarded as one of the most important religious subjects because it reflects an aspect of the religious fact which the Assyrian society lived through the New Assyrian period via studying the temples and their prestige in the New Assyrian kingdom. So, the Assyrian kings took care seriously of the religious affairs that reflected clearly on their royal titles, and descriptions. Subsequently , the worshipping centers, i.e.(the temples) favored with great interest by them in terms of sanctity and holiness but that hallo of importance was subject occasionally to certain kinds of encroachments and sacrileges by the public and some official characters.According , this research sheds light on the range of care taken by the Assyrian kings as to the sanctity of those temples, binding to their controls on one hand. The study also tries know to the nature of those encroachments and what was the measures adopted by the kings about this point on the other hand.

Fertility Worship of Prehistoric People in Iraq

Hussein .Y. Al-Najm

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 553-574

Agriculture formed a vital element for human beings during Neolithic. It changed his life to a new phase, after he was moving from place to place looking for animal hunt, collecting fruits and living in caves, he turned due to practicing agriculture into a stable life in settled Villages getting his food in a permanent way. Agriculture was a civil, economic and social revolution. Iraqi people contributed heavily in this vital change for they were living in one of the most important place in the near East Witnessed the beginning of that change which also helped him to have a mental realization and give a big value to the incentives represented by agriculture. This led to worship agriculture for his existence was highly connected with what land gave people of fruits. Moreover, man expressed his worship in religious concept which was the early and first in history expressing land as a mud figures of a women with an exaggerate feminity. Thay made a functional relationship between land and women in artistic and social representation revealed by excavations in several agricultural sites in Iraq and Near East. Furthermore, this relationship showed a civilization unity among those sites through the worship of that mud figures.

Methods and Behaviors of Users of ArabicElectronic Periodicals in the Field of Libraries and Information Science

Sumaya Younis Alkafaf

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 575-605

This study is aiming at introducing some Arabic electronic periodicals in the field of information and Library science and identifying the تهدف الدراسة إلى التعرف على بعض الدوريات الالكترونية العربية في مجال المعلومات والمكتبات من خلال التعرف على مفهومها وأنواعها ومزاياها والتحديات التي تواجهها فضلا عن التعرف على خصائص واتجاهات أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية في قسم المعلومات والمكتبات بجامعة الموصل وقسم المكتبات بالمعهد التقني في الموصل، استخدمت الباحثة المنهج المسحي بلغ مجتمع الدراسة 17من أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية وتم اعتماد الاستبيان كأداة لجمع البيانات وقد كانت أهم النتائج التي توصلت إليها الدراسة هي :-1-أكد 100% من مجتمع الدراسة أن مواقع الانترنت هي أكثر منافذ الوصول للدوريات الالكترونية أما باقي المنافذ تراوحت بين 23% إلى 17% .2-اشار100% من مجتمع الدراسة أنهم يفضلون الوصول للدوريات الالكترونية العربية في مجال المعلومات والمكتبات مجانا وبلغت النسبة صفر% مقابل للاشتراك النقدي.3-فضل 70% من مجتمع الدراسة الدوريات المطبوعة على النسخة الالكترونية للدوريات في حال توافرهما بكلا الشكلين.4-يرى 88% من مجتمع الدراسة أن الدوريات الالكترونية أكثر حداثة من الدوريات الورقية.

A Bobliometric Study of Dissertations in Statistics Achieved at University of Mosul1995-2006

Hamsa Maan Mohamed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 606-639

The researcher analyzes the reference citations of the doctoral dissertations of the department of statistics at the University of Mosul for the period(1995-2006) which mounted to(668) reference citations. The research offered a good evaluation of the information sources used by Ph.D students. The researcher used some statistical method and the statistical program (Minitab 13). The most important conclusion is that the ratio of using foreign reference citations which mounted to(83,532%) is greater than the ratio of Arabic reference citations which mounted to (%16.467). The reason of this difference is attributed to the rarity of the Arabic information sources in statistics and the high prices of most of them.

Ibn Rushed Political Philosophy

Sami Mahmood Ibraheem

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 640-667

This paper entitled "Ibn Rushed political philosophy" aims at reviewing and analyzing Ibn rushed political thought which depends on philosophy in most of its aspects .It involves a comprehensive study of his philosophy in this respects .The choice of this topic is due to many considerations of which the pivotal status of Ibn Rushed in the Islamic thought as he talked about many issues including managing politics and types of governments as well as theorizing for the virtuous city " utopia ". In this respect, Ibn rushed has surpassed Plato's idealistic theory, proving the possibility of establishing a virtuous city through the succession of governments involving virtuous people in a given country that maintaing justice and stability as well as reformation and renewal .This paper reveals many facts concerning this topic and ends up with important findings that are valuable for both readers and researchers .Considering the various political views for the possibility of creating a good city " utopia " , and analyzing the factors of creating such utopia or a theoretical level .And if the main concept of the research is to consider the theoretical and practical aim which Ibn Rushed intended in his research in the field of politics as a philosophical research. The researcher divides the paper in to four parts. The first seetion has two aims :a/The subject of politics and its relation with other science.b/ The concept of Ibn Rushed concerning justice and its connection with the state and ruling .And the second section has two aims :a/ Between the policy of cities and types of rule .b/The application of the policy of cities within the philosophy of utopia.

Persian vocabularies in Colloquial Mousli Arabic

Tay Hatam Jassim

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 668-699

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, prayer and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and gluten either Miami yet ... , Each nation is proud of and proud of it and that if the Arabs who Atsoa language and notorious Bblagthm and Vsaanhm and preserved their language even more to keep away from the melody, it should be noted that the Arabs did not hunker in places isolated away from the others, but opened up to the regions to several factors, including religious, political and economic Here The close contact and mixing with other tribes and the impact of language in the languages of other nations did not prevent this from that affected much of the terms as a result of their dealings to the income Arabic dialect a lot of words of foreign, including Persian of the factors that I mentioned in the above and this would normally because life is based on give and take in everything, including the language, have been found and I live in the cities of Mosul, that there is a lot of words Persian that are open to people do not know their origins and their implications are quite accurate understanding of it, here was my idea in this research to extend the service of a modest yard specialist and highlight many of the vocabulary with which we deal in our daily lives as it entered us by virtue of contiguity and visits and Altsahr and by virtue of religion and trade, politics and wars have been arranged are collecting items according to the alphabet, taking advantage of language dictionaries Persian and Arabic Ooah all of the words of explanation and illustration, and this aims to do research to increase cultural awareness..And God help you ....

The Impact of Scientific Progress on the Assessment of the Translations of the Scientific Verses in the Glorious Quran

Mazin F. Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 700-727

تسبر هذه الدراسة غور ترجمات الآيات القرآنية التي تعالج القضايا العلمية في ضوء العلم الحديث. إذ تستند على فرضية مفادها أن ترجمات الآيات القرآنية التي تعنى بالقضايا العلمية عرضة للنقد من وجهة نظر العلم الحديث. فقد تبين أن الترجمات غير متساوقة مع الآيات القرآنية بقدر ما يتعلق الأمر بالعلم الحديث. وتعزى الأخطاء التي وقع فيها المترجمون إلى حقيقة أن الترجمات الحديثة للقرآن الكريم غالباً ما تعتمد اعتماداً لا يخرج عن تأويلات القدامى من المفسرين. لذا توصي هذه الدراسة بتنقيح ترجمات القرآن الكريم وتفاسيره في ضوء العلم الحديث.

The Threepenny Opera: The Ballad Opera and the Socio-political Criticism and Change

Azher Suleiman Saleh

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 728-730

مثلت المسرحية الغنائية منذ مطلع القرن الثامن عشر وسيلة للنقد الاجتماعي والسياسي آنذاك ومثالنا في هذا البحث المتواضع هو مسرحية جون غي (أوبرا الفقراء). قام برتولت بريخت بعمل مسرحي رائع وذلك بتعديل النص التراثي الى نص حديث ليتماشى مع أهداف بريخت السياسية والاجتماعية في نقد النظام الرأسمالي. إن أهم ما تم تعديله هو تحويل الشخصية الرئيسية للمسرحية (ماجيث) من لص وقاتل وقاطع طريق كما ورد في النص التراثي إلى رجل منمق ذي مظهر راق وحديث ولغة منمقة ولكنه لص شديد المراس يترأس عصابة كبيرة في لندن. ويتحول هذا اللص إلى صاحب مصرف كبير. واستخدم بريخت أغانية ووسائل الأغراب الأخرى في النص وعلى خشبة المسرح ليوطد هذا الفهم عند المشاهد من انه لا فرق بين لصوص الشوارع والرأسماليين، كليهما يسرق ويستغل ومن ثم يحتل المناصب بواسطة الأموال التي سرقها من الشعب.يتناول البحث بالتحليل كل القيم السياسية والاجتماعية التي تتساقط وتتهاوى تحت مطرقة النظام الرأسمالي. فالمحبة والزواج يقومان على مصالح اقتصادية ، والرئيس يخون مرؤوسيه حتى وان وصل الأمر إلى حتفهم، والزوجة تكذب على زوجها، ورئيس الشرطة يتعاطى كل أنواع الممنوعات مع قطاع الطرق والمجرمين في سوهو. كل هذا يستعرضه بريخت في مسرحيته محفزا مشاهديه على رفض هذا الواقع المؤلم وإحلال البدائل المناسبة.

The Translation of Names of DoomsdayIn the Glorious Quran ُInto English

Sulaiman A.Ali

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 731-753

يتناول هذا ألبحث ترجمة أسماء يوم ألقيامه في ألقران ألكريم إلى أللغة ألانكليزية. أن يوم ألقيامة هو ألاسم ألرئيسي ألشائع ليوم ألقيامه، وقد ورد في ألقران ألكريم في سبعين آية، بينما لم ترد ألصفات ألأخرى له ألا في آيـات قليله لا تتعدى آية واحده في بعض ألصفات كالتغابن، وتقول معاجم أللغة أن ألقيامة مصدر (لقام، يقوم، قوما، وقياما، وقيامة). أن أسم يوم ألقيامة لوحده لا يحتاج ألي تفسير، وقد وردت أسماء عديدة ليوم ألقيامه منها(يوم ألفصل، يوم ألقضاء، يوم ألجمع، يوم ألدين، يوم ألحساب) وغيـرها من ألأسماء والتي تحتاج ألي تفسير نظرا للمعاني الإضافية ألتي تتضمنها.ويعتقد ألباحث أن ترجمـة نص مثل ألقران ألكريم ألذي يمتلك صفات ألخصوصية و قابلية عدم ألتقليد هي عملية صعبة أن لم تكن مستحيلة. لذلك فقد أدى هذا إلى ظهور ألعديد من ألمشكلات ألثقافيه في عملية ترجمة أسماء يوم ألقيامه في ألقران ألكريم. فقد افـترض البحث عدم وجود علاقة متكافئة بين أسماء يوم ألقيامه في أللغة ألعربية ونظيراتها في أللغة ألانكليزية وان ألترجمات ألمختلفة لهذه ألأسماء كانت نتيجة للصور ألبلاغيه ألرائعة في ألقران ألكريم. وان هذه ألدراسة أظهرت وجود ألعديد من ألمشكلات ألثقافيه في عملية ترجمة أسماء يوم ألقيامه ألتي وردت في ألقران ألكريم.وان ألهدف من هذا البحث هو ألقاء ألضوء على تراجم بعض أسماء يوم ألقيامه التي وردت في القران ألكريم واختيار ألترجمة ألمناسبة جدا لأسم يوم ألقيامة.

Investigating the Ability to Construct English Sentences by First Year Students of Physical Education College in the University of Mosul

Shatha H. Sadallah

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 754-776

تختبر هذه الدراسة قابليات طلبة المرحلة الأولى في كلية التربية الرياضية بجامعة الموصل في تكوين الجمل باللغة الانكليزية. يجري ذلك من خلال اختبارهم أثناء المحاضرات وإخضاعهم لكتابة كل أنواع الجمل الانكليزية بصورة صحيحة لتمكينهم من التغلب على الصعوبات التي تواجههم في تكوين هذه الأنواع من الجمل.ومن فروض هذا البحث التي ينبغي التنبه لها هو أن هؤلاء الطلبة لا يمتلكون أدنى معرفة بقواعد اللغة الأساسية ومعرفة الأجزاء التي تتألف منها الجملة. لذا وجب علينا إتباع بعض الخطوات لتمكينهم من معرفتها والتي هي مهمة جداً في تكوين الجمل. ومن هذه الخطوات إخضاع الطلبة إلى تمرينات وتدريبات على كتابة كل أنواع الجمل، ومن ثم التمييز بين أنواع تلك الجمل التي هي البسيطة والمركبة والمعقدة ليتسنى لهم الوقوف على عموم الهدف الذي لأجله قمنا بهذه الدراسة ولأجل أن يعوا أبعاد ما نطمح إليه في الارتقاء بمستوياتهم العلمية.

Problems of Transferring AYAAS Describing the Condition of Mountains on The Day of Juagement

Mohammad Tahir Sattam

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 777-789

يتناول هذا البحث دراسة المشكلات التي تواجه المترجمين الذين يترجمون نصوص القرآن الكريم إلى اللغة الإنكليزية. وهو يركز على دراسة ترجمات بعض الآيات التي تصف حالة الجبال والمشاهد المرعبة التي تحصل لها يوم القيامة. ويهدف البحث إلى دراسة التراكيب اللغوية التي تصف تلك المشاهد من الناحيتين الدلالية والنحوية. وقد تم اختيار اثنين من المفسرين أحدهما قديم هو القرطبي والآخر حديث هو حسنين مخلوف، كما تم اختيار أربعة من المترجمين هم: أحمد علي، وبكتل، ورقيب الله ودرويش، ومحمد أحمد وسميرة أحمد. وتم تحليل تلك الترجمات مع بيان نقاط الفشل والنجاح في تلك الترجمات. وقد اتضح من خلال هذا البحث أن الترجمة التواصلية هي الأفضل عند ترجمة النصوص القرآنية.

L'image de la femmeDans"Eugénie Grandet"De Balzac

Nadia Ali Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 790-806

أن موضوع المرأة هو موضوع حديث حيث قد تناوله العديد من الكتاب وقدموا وجهة نظرهم ووضحوا صورة المرأة بحرية تامة. تناول البحث صورة المرأة في القرن التاسع عشر لدى الكاتب الفرنسي الكبير بلزاك في روايته (اوجين غراندي) من الناحية البلاغية حيث تضمن (المقارنة والتشبيه والاستعره...) فالمرأة عند بلزاك هي ضحية تقاليد وعادات المجتمع وضحية للحب والشغف فالحب عند بطلة الرواية هو حاجة ملحة سواء منحته أم حصلت عليه ولكن السعادة ليست بالنتيجة الحتمية لهذا الحب لأنه كان مصدر لآلامها وتعاستها.

The Role of Intonation in Arabicand English Grammar

Fuad Jasim Mohamed Al-Heeti; Mohamed-Basil Kasim Al-Azzawi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 41, Issue 59, Pages 807-823

تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحليل وبيانا لترابط بين أنواع الجملة المحكية ومظاهر التنغيم في اللغة التي تصاحبها. إن الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو وصف وتحليل نماذج التنغيم في اللغة العربية الفصحة واللغة الانكليزية بالاعتماد على الأسس النحوية وبطريقة مقارنة. وتفترض الدراسة بأن اللغتين تختلف إحداهما عن الأخرى فيما يتعلق بنوع الجملة ومظاهر التنغيم المتصلة بها. وخلجت الدراسة بان الاختلافات في التنغيم هي أكثر تأثيرا وفعالية عن تلك الاختلافات النحوية، كما أن الدراسة خلصت إلى أن اللغتين العربية والانكليزية تستخدم تقريبا كل أنواع نماذج التنغيم التي استخدمها(هالي داي) في دراسته للتنغيم عام (1971) وان اختيار نماذج التنغيم تقررها بشكل أساس عوامل نحوية وتركيبية.