ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 2867-0378

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2506-2664

Volume 41, Issue 60

Volume 41, Issue 60, Summer 2011, Page 1-661

Imperative Mood in Surat Yusuf: A rhetorical study

Ahmad Mahmmod Azo Salih; Ahmad Fathy Ramadan

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 1-32

This search teach me that the writers of the language mean the important pictures, but the writers out four important notes, and these (a) ordering by verb. (b). The present Al Majzoom by ordering Lam. (c) The name of the verb. (d) The doing for it's verb. And they are nearer than others.
2- We knew from the first search the way of true order, that the way of the word "Afa'al" wrote many times the Al sura Al kareema and took the order of the personal "Yousif" that his brothers put him in far bad place-After that he reached in high good place and began with respect and his patient was the result. When they put him in the "Al Jub" and took him and sold him to Al Azeez to take his good chance from the wife of Al-Azeez and she patient and faith and in the end success came from Allah.
3- The ordering came more than once by the work "A fa'al" three times after the dreaming of the king and the important explaining that made him to bring his brother "Binwameen" al that came by true ordering. This information feeling to know where his brother Yousif was and in the end the meeting between them, and throwing his shirt explain the important happiness to their father and came true.
4- The other three states came to change the state of killing Yousif by ordering to put him on "Al jub" in a good way and peace to continue his life. When they took him from Al-Jub and help him that came from "God" and it was in Yousif mind in faith.
5- We knew from the third way in ordaining way that it was different in ways of writing in the same way of writing in "Al-Aaaya". The way of writing this wrote in the way of choosing and teaching how toe throw him in "Al-Jub" and the true way to do the good doing or asking permission not to speak in this bad doing about Al-Azeez house.
6- The summery way in his faith and his manner to explain his dreaming and teaching the prisoners the patient. This ordering made them to know to do the good when he refused to leave the prison and when he explain the king's dream he became honesty. This made the way of ordering to give the role of devil to become strong in forgetting operation.
7- In this Al sura Al-kareema from Al-kuraan that the way of ordering in the tow kind's in a true way and Al-Majazee way and in knowing way. This took important sides from the life of the society. I can speak that the tell way that means the ordering, that's enable him to rule Egypt and surprising to make friendly among the brothers after dislike among them. That's by patient and believe . This surprising the dislike against the lobe. In the end that made the diske brothers among his brothers and parents and become the ruler and relief his father after big sadness.

The Semantic Function of Expanded Non – Assertive Nominal Sentences in The Glorious Ayas of Paradise and Hell

Aaisha Khudur; Talaal Yahya Al-Tubchi

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 33-57

The research points out that "Expansion" is the most distinguishing feature in the Glorious ayas which talk about paradise and hell .The Semantic and syntactic functions which result in wording alurie unit that have the role in forming these Sentences. They give an image of bless in paradise and chastisement in Hell .

Proportion in Surah Mohammad "A rhetoric Study "

Ahmed Yahya Ali; Ahmed Mohammad

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 58-98

Proportion is one of the rhetorical terms used to conceive aesthetic feature and to explain a certain level of rhythm where speech characteristics belong to a class of rhetoric with collection of conditions are realized .
According to the dissimilarity of these conditions, the rhetorical or Proportional levels are differentiate, on the base that the proportion in its final result represents the rhetoric and eloquence of the text. These terms have meaning which meet in many sides to refer to the rhetoricians distinguished among them in semantics and the conditions of structure in the text.
This text is an attempt to recognize proportion concept as a linguistic and aesthetic values as well as the assembled terms with it semantically and functionally: harmony, similarity and congruity. The investigation in these aesthetic values will be presented through the 'sura of Mohammed' "PBUH". This researed prefers to use proportion as a title through clarifying its aspects in this sura.

The Phenomenon of Circle Consequence in Arabic Grammar: Problems and Solutions

Mohammad Thannon Younis Alfathi

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 103-139

This research deals with a critical phenomenon spread in all Arabic sciences after it has been outside philosophical and logical studies. This phenomenon is called (Circle consequence). The study tackles the definition, purposes and position of this notion. The first section discusses the notion of (Circle) and its types. The second gives an argument about the conditions of its happening, defines it and offers the reasons for its happening. The third explains the forms which call for (Circle) and the ways of its occurrence in the writings of authors and grammarians. Finally, the research mentions the ways for preventing (Circle) and the techniques used by grammarians to overcome it. This supposed phenomenon in some grammatical phrases. This research can be considers a grammatical critical study tackles a phenomenon which leads to false definitions and reasons. It also aims at furnishing the learners of Arabic grammar with this problem , the way of (Circle) and how overcome it by using and accurate scientific technique.

Orientalism: A Study in the method and intentionality of the discourse

Faris Aziz al Mudaris; Zahida Muhammad al Shakhe

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 140-168

The basic idea of this paper is an invitation to explore the methodological dimension of the action of orientimic data, analyzing its participation in parting the other's image. It also tries to gain the data of the explored one. All these objectives could be achieved throughout using methodological tools were set early to be the foundations that lead to the truth, but some of the orientalists made the methodology as a means to manufacture the image of the other in order to achieve certain objectives and intention. Hence, this paper deals with exploring the communicative value of the action of writing, then there must be a process of deconstructing the methodology of orientalism according to machineries depend upon the analytical way of methodology via suitable epistemic methods as well as rereading the language of discourse and its formerly intention.
This paper also aims at explaining the motives that demand to cancel the term of orientalism and giving it new names to pass over its heavy loads through dangerous trickery intends to continue in utilizing the data of oreintalism but in new names of academic appearance and even a human one. It highly it important to study the “ action of oreintalism “ for having an effective influence in the cultural and political changes all over the world.

Horse Drawings on Plastic Arts

Ahmed Qasim Al-Jumaa; Muhammed Khudhair

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 169-196

Muslim artist was solicitaus with decorating animal, human, plant and geometric forms on the applied arts of which were the paintings of horses. These paintings express the broad horizons of Muslim artist as he transferred their forms. Consequently these paintings were spread in multi–buildings sites like palaces and baths.
In this study, we shall tackle the inscriptions that were made by the Muslim artists on movable things. It studies the naming of horses both linguistically and conventionally. It also cites the Quranic verses that mention this word, i.e. horse. In addition to many of Summerians and Assyrian landscapes. The artist made his the inscription on textiles and porcelain. To add, the researcher notices the great attention that have been by the artist to horses, as they were used as transport means to reach the farthest point in the world in the time. This is what was reflected by the Muslim artist in his work as an arti

Mecca Wells and Their Economic and Social Importance

Nehal Khalil Al- Sharaby

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 197-225

Mecca , being situated in a barren valley. It suffered from draught and shortage of rain. This The present study tackles the Meccan wells and their economic and social important. led the masters. of Mecca, among whom were Qusay and his sons and grandsons, take the responsibility of digging the wells to provide water for the pilgrims. Therefore, they dug several wells inside Mecca. In addition , performing such tasks would raise their rank among the Arab tribes.

Cultural and Political Baekground of the Iraqi Ministrial Elite 1966-1968

Luma Abdul-Aziz Mustafa

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 226-252

The cabinet leadership is considered vital, as it is the political leadership of the society. The roles of ministers vary in the modern systems and have been developed functionally according to the development of contemporary political thoughts ( thinkings ) and the expansion and complexity of the state. Ministers nowadays participate in determining the aims, the policy, the decisions and programs of the state.
Historical source pay attention to the social, economic background of those ministers with reference to their place of birth, age, levels of education, professions before being in the cabinet and other variables such as national, religious and political treads.
This study concentrates on the social and political background of prime ministers and the members of the cabinets.

Armed and political groups in Darfur :A study of their Historical Background and Intellectual Bases

Thaker M. Abdullah

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 254-279

The rebellion began in Darfur in February 2003,and it referred to internal conflicts. They have impacts on Sudan. The rebelled caused sharp and various contrasts ,the most serious of which was the challenge at wills between the authority of state and leaders of the rebellion in the province. This has raised many questions about the nature, the roots, the structures ,and the intellectual bases of this force.
This research tries to highlight these points throughout two axes: first, the groups supported by the authorities, second, the rebellious groups.

In the Age of the Tools at Prohet Muhammad (pbUH) Age

Abdul-Sataar Jasim Muhammed

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 280-361

The personal belongings of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) are of great importance in the Islamic civilizational heritage. This importance has been emerged since these belongings have served the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) in his life and subsistence. This study has reached to the good taste that the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) had in all his personal and social dealings. Besides that, studying such a subject will give Muslims a clear picture about the prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) to follow his suit perfectly.
The study consists of three chapters, the first one deals with his domestic belongings and it includes three sections. The first section tackles his eating, drinking and bathing belongings; and the second section studies his grooming and dressing belongings whereas the third section examines his sleep and ease belongings.
Chapter two, which explores his work belongings, consists of two sections. The first one looks into his work belongings in Makkah and the second one looks into his work belongings in Madina. Chapter three, comprising four sections, investigates his war belongings; the first section confined to his defensive weapons, the second one to his offensive and the third section to his weapons that can be used both defensively offensively. Chapter four is devoted to his riding and transporting belongings.
The study comes up with a conclusion comprising the most important findings that have been reached by this study.

The Role of the Moroccan women in the Public Life

Lamyaa Izudeen Al-Sabaagh

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 367-387

The present paper aims at drawing a picture of women in the western parts of the Arab world in the public life from the time of Islamic liberation to the fifth century A.H. and to shed life on the role women played during this period.
The Arab library neglected the studies that deal with women’s life in the western parts of the Arab world in different aspects of life compared with their coun tarparts in the eastern parts who had their fair share of research. There is no doubt that woman history in the Arab west is rich with political and social activities, hence we attempted to introduce their distinctive role.

Cultural Aspects in the Reign of the Prince Abdul-Rahmaan Al-Awssat

Hadiya Mohammez

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 419-433

The rise of the Islamic civilization in Andalus (spain currently) began since Amir Abdul Ramman II , 206 – 238 H after the death of his father AL-Hakam bin Hisham without any rivalry from his brothers. This is because Abdul Rahman had led many campigans in which he was the leader.
Amir Abdul Rahman II was considered the builder of civilization in Andalus as he became Amir of a harmonized powerful state against Spanish kingdoms in the North. He developed the internal polices in which the system of police had been developed as well. The attack of Normans in 229 H/ 843 A.D and their threatening led to building a powerful marine forces and ships. This means that the achievements of Abdul Rahman II had some political motives. In addition to that he encouraged the scientific movement.
He paid great attention to architectural movements. So he bulit many towns, places and mosques. His peace treaties affected positively on the rise of civilization and the growth of thinking. The age of Abdul Rahmman II is an age of stability and he was able to put down all internal rebellions and defeated the Spanish forces. So his age was considered the ideal among other periods on all political military and civil levels Military.

he Arab Islamic Armed Conflict with Byzantine Empire in Sardiral Island (85-407 A.H/704-1016 A.D

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 444-462

This study tackles the relationship of Arab Islamic state with the Byzantine empire in the island of Sardinah which passed through several stages. After liberating the lands occupied by the Byzantium, Muslim Arabs began to fight in the sea. They fought at first in the eastern islands then moved to the western ones. Sardinah was one of these island. It was the scene of the armed conflict between the two states due to its important strategic position and its adjacency to the Peninsula of Ebyria (Andalus).
Sardinah was one of the four biggest islands of the Mediterranean (Cecelia, Cyprus and Akritin).
Attempts to conquer this island goes back to the Umayyad era. At that time Byzantine forces began to wage attacks against the Arab Islamic state coasts. They took this island as a base for their attacks. During the Abbaside era, however, Aghalib state began to take care of the Islamic fleet. They began to wage campaigns against Arab islands such as Sardinah. Their motivation behind these campaigns were to consolidate the Arab Islamic sovereignty on the western basin of the Mediterranean, spread Islam in the region and protect the Islamic coasts and fortified border line cities.
Fatimy state adopted the same policy followed by the Aghalib state. However, the Islamic fleet remained very strong during the reign of emirate and caliphate in Andalusia. The favour returning to attributing the sovereignty on Andalusia to the ruler of Daniah, Mujahid Al-Amiru; though for a short time.

Handicrafts against Imported Goods Socio anthroplogical Study In Mosul Market

Faiz Mohammed Daoud; Muna Shaker Mohammed Khider

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 463-477

Any phenomenon or research problem can be investigated from several angles. Specialists might insist on their own opinions and present a precise scientific description of the part they focus on. Through their unpretentious attempt, the researchers tried to investigate the marketplace and its components economically and socially to present another picture or factor that completes the picture. This study aims at investigating investigate craftsmanships and their existence in Mosul marketplace as none of us is acquainted with the beginnings of the traditional craftsmanships that have been necessary to meet the needs of societies. Thus, such crafts became the constants of our deep-rooted heritage and the treasure of its people, i.e. the treasure that can never be forgotten no matter how many years or days pass. The loftiness of the past is nothing but the deriving and lightening of the present the innovative stages of which were shortened by old craftsmen; and, as everyone knows, the first step of a thousand miles begins with a single step. The transformation of art into a bi-equation combined the old and the new. that was gained by high technicality and skills. Long ago, the Arab land has been known by its manual industries because of the abundance of craftsmen. Till now, there are a lot of people whose living depends on craftsmanship. The traditional industry represents one of the primary factors upon which the economical ambience of hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of families depend in spite of the wane and the reduction of the number of craftsmen nowadays. The originality of the past and its relation to the culture of the present is embodied in the specialization of many deep-rooted societies in such a craftsmanship, especially those societies that have clear originality and which are proud of their heritage and modern history.

Rumor and Its Impact on Society (A field study in Mosul City)

Eman Homady Rajab

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 478-524

One of the mostsignificant and serious issues that has become very common nowadays in the world in general and the Iraqi community in particular is rumor. It is considered to be an old social and psychological phenomenon that dates back to the ancient times. It has a direct impact on individuals, groups and society. There are various types of rumors. One of the most important types of rumor is the one based on a particular subject; it has a direct impact on the social structure of the community and it includes political, social, and economic rumors.
Rumor spreads in a society whose individuals and commumity suffer instability and chaos due to economic factors, and during war times. This is true of the Iraqi society which currently encounters different types of rumors including economic ones which are related to the conditions of the individuals themselves, social ones that comprise of seditions amongst the sects of the society, or political ones that cover issues such as the government situation, elections, and the system adopted by the government. This is the outcome of invasion which created social and political tensions in the Iraqe society which was evident in the results derived from (50) randomly chsen test subjects of different ages, professions, and educational backgrounds to obtain various opinions regarding rumor. The researcher relied on questionnaires, interviews, and collecting notes.
After the analysis of general and specific results, the researcher recommends;
1. Rumor leaves a great impact on the individuals of Iraqi society, particularly the ones related to political and social conditions.
2. Despite the spread of rumor and its impact on the individuals, their fear and anxiety towards the countrys conditions and their own, it does not affect their social relations.
3. Rumor influences the psychological states of individuals which causes them to be tensed, scared, and pushes them to think of leaving the country.
4. Rumor has an effect on the daily duties; it causes the one to be unable to conentrate, and to re-do things over and over, and hence get notice from their employers.
5. Rumor that comes through media and friends seems to be widely spread and easily accepted.
6. Individuals prefer not to convey the rumors to the their homes which is the only safe haven where they find peace of mind.
7. Certain sections of society have chosen to immigrate because of the rumor and due to social religious and security causes.
8. The most common rumors are that the invasion will leave the country, fixing electricity problems and employment of graduates.

Antioch The City of Capitals in 3rd , 4th Century A.H/9th , 10th Century A.D

Sana Abdullah A Ziz

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 488-418

Thughur and Awasim region in Islamic Arab state has got a great attention from researchers due to its clear effect in events of Islamic Arab history. In addition, there are contributions in supporting economic and Intellectual aspects of the state Antioch is one of the famous cities which played an important role in Islamic history.
Military Campaigns led by many caliphs or their leaders whom they have experience and courage.
From here, we chose this city for our paper. The research contains an introduction and themes sections about the city, and its Umayyad ages. Also its people, scientific trips, churches and monasteries. We depended on so many references and resources in giving a truthful picture about the city and its Intellectual and political donation also the reasons behind its weakness and fall

The Role of the Public Library in Developing the Society Cculture The central public library at Nineveh province as a sample

Mahmood Salih Ismail; Akram Mahmood Fathi

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 525-551

The research is a general view of the central public at Nineveh province and its role in developing the community culture in Nineveh since its foundation in 1921 till the present time . the research also includes a futuristic view to develop the library and its services and staff.
The most important conclusions the study has come up with as the following:
1- The users' refusal to use the library because is faraway from the city center , the exceptional security conditions in Mosul as well as the absence of out-library lending .
2- Refusal of thinkers and scholars to donate their personal collections of books because they are not being used heavily by users. It is to be noted that no personal collection was donated since 2002.
The absence of specialists in information and librarianship among the central public library employees in spite of the availability of two departments of information and librarianship at the technical institute and College of Arts in Mosul .

Optimal Location of Solid Waste in the City of Mosul

Sahar Saeed Qassim Al-Ta; Ibrahim Mohammed Al-Kassab

اداب الرافدین, 2011, السنة 41, العدد 60, الصفحة 552-570

This research is to identify and propose other sites for solid waste in the city of Mosul using certain variables. This study comes after what has contributed to economic and social developments accompanied this evolution is the increasing amount of waste.
So that became the waste disposal problems that plague the population and the local government especially for the wealth of the damage on the health of the population and society in general.
research this is an attempt to locate an optimal site for solid waste in the city of Mosul in the right side and left side according to the determinants of global site selection of solid waste in terms of identifying elements of climate and geological region.
Either in relation to the determinants of the hydrological factors that ruled out of the research as a result of the lack of measurements of the fact that modern for the presence of deep groundwater in city of Mosul. as well as we examine the soil type to determine the best thickness of the soil to determine the area of solid waste. It is important that decline in determining the site of solid waste because it is an important factor is complementary to the above-mentioned factors.