السنة 40، العدد 58، الخریف 2010، الصفحة 1-809
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 1-69
The paper of- Artor Shada- deals with the views of Sybawayhi about phonetics and the views of modern phonetians in the same field. The study tries to give a brief account of sybawyhs life, and the method of his stady and its goals , followed by Shadas biography and his interest in Arabic studies.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 70-119
This paper deals with the works of Daif’s in renewing the Arabic grammar, and look at the advantages and disadvantages of his method; in addition to revaluing of his references in this field.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 120-146
The research investigates the state of spatial-temporal complaint that the platonic poets of Bani Umayia had. Given the importance that this study holds on artistic semantics, the research was divided into two main sections:
1- Temporal alienation and its influence in revealing the platonic poet's psychological dilemma as he suffers from what time has done to him. Time in literature is presented as "Humane time", thus the psychological suffering of the poet is clearly felt.
2- Spatial alienation is the section that tries to explain the spatial information associated with it, and tries to identify the boundaries that the poet has set for himself in his poetry, both semantically and pragmatically within the structure of the poem. In this sense, place turns, by means of meaning and symbols, into a concentration of values and social reality and reveals the extent of the poet's interactivity with his society.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 147-191
This paper deals with a fundamental issue in phonetics, namely phonetic parallelism which represents one of the miraculous aspects in Al- Qamar Surah. The study explains the concept of parallelism paying a special attention to the parallelism of word components, for example, the parallelism of short vowels, the parallelism of rhyming letters, and syllable parallelism in addition to the parallelism of syntactic components. This includes the parallelism of the partial syntactic repetition and that of the full syntactic repetition.
The paper comes out with the conclusion the phonetic parallelism in AL- Qamar Surah has verbal aesthetic dimensions that are consistent with some structural syntactic and semantic functions. Furthermore, rhyme contributes to the achievement of a unified beat, which indicates the continuation of tone, connectivity, and succession. This goes well with Almightly God's follow up for the ancient people, who were liars, and is consistent with the significance of movement, speed, hardship, repetition and exaggeration.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 190-206
The speech mixes prose and poetry in a piece of language which removes the boundaries among the literary genres, for should not think that the study tries to compare the poetics of speech with the poetics of Al_A`sha, Al_Nabigha, Al_Mutanaby, Safi ud_Din Al_Hilly and Mohmmad Mahdi Al_jawahiry, it tries to combine prose and poetry by means of the variance, and similarity rather than by contrast and difference. The presence of one genre does not exclude the other. The poetic aspect endows the speech with the characteristics of being brief, condensed and metaphor and avoids redundancy and verbosity. The study therefore, is an applied interest in poetry using prosaic tools through using poetry within prosaic contexts.
The theory of literary genres draws a distinction among the genres by judging each genre according to the standards and criteria each one has and the stylistic features using strict parameters. However, poetry within prose performs an epistemological function with an aesthetic aspect linked to the change in the angle of vision.
The study removes the boundaries among the literary genres to the extent of violating the cognitive legacy which states that there are strict borderlines among the genres. It similarly rejects any merging among the genres which have a lot in common. For any connection between prose and poetry is not dictated by form, rather the mixture is what endows them with knowledge and the mobility of awareness. Rhyme is no longer considered a separating trench between poetry and prose because the definition of poetry changes and renews with time and ideology.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 207-237
During the period under investigation (1949 – 1958) , Lebanon witnessed the existence of many forms of frontal Work. These forms were effective and influential at the level of interior policy. Lebanese factional coalitions began within the framework of traditional parliamentary opposition. It resulted in the (committee of coalitions factions), a coalition that opposed reelecting Bushara Al – Khuree for a second term. This coalition agreed upon the democracy of dissolving the parliament, holding free elections, securing general liberties, integrity and joining the legal factions that adopted this stance like “ Social Progressive Party “, “ National Liberty Bloc “, “ National Bloc “, The Party of Public Unity “, “ National Calling Party ” and “ Al- Gasasina Organization”.
As for the “ National Social Bloc ” ,it is a parliamentary bloc that opposes Al- Khuree.It doesn’t , however , comprise all the parties of the first coalition. Most of its members and nationalist figures. It comprises eight parliamentary members. The programme of this front is clear that of the committee of factions. It is of economical social and democratic nature. It succeeded in deposing Bushara Al-Khuree and electing one of its members (Kameel Shamoun) for the president of the state instead of him.
The third coalition, however, was the public social bloc. It undertook achieving the necessary reforms in Lebanon. The figures participating in it were friends to the progressive party or active members in it.As for its programme, it was similar to that of the national social bloc.
Factional congress, however, was of different nature. It was a coalition among many factions that demanded for reforms surpasses the internal reforms. It standard its meetings with calling for supporting the struggle of the Arab people in Morrocow. Then, it enlisted the reform demands on its agenda. The congress programme was distanced with political feature which became clear through preserving Lebanon’s unity, and independency. It was rejecting western alliances specially Baghdad alliance in 1955.
The National Front was closest to the national socialism front in their members , clearly it was personalities alliance more the between parties , while its announcing program nearest to the party conference program , therefore it concentrated on public political requirements such as refusing second presidential renew for Kamil Shamoon and resisting his political perversion specially the external policy related to western bias. But it is as former alliances determined the relation between its members while its political role was great.
The Magolia-Mamlokia Relations in the Region of Al-Nasir Mohammed Al-Mamlook: according the Norel of Bibris Al-mensoor:in his book (mukhtar Al-Akhbar)
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 239-265
Zahida Mouhammed Taha
The book (Mukhtar Al –Akhbar) for Rukin Al-Din Al-Mansouri which is known by (Al-Dodar), is one of the well-wnown history sources, which deals with the history of the Mamluk –Mingol relationships during the Mamluk navy period.
The most important thing about this book is that this author lived during the period of Sultan Al-Nasar Mohammad Bin khalawin who is one of the best Sultans of the Mamluk state. the author attended the biggest military wars of the Mamluk against Magul and crusade. Besides the author shared in the Mamluk state specially during the Al-Nasar Mohamad second part of his ara.
All these events makes this book so important for it is considered the pioneer in dealing with the historical facts about the wars between Mingols and Mamluks and specifically about the battle (Muriage al Suffar)in which the author described scenes from the battle that he actually attend and shared , that what makes the information about the battle so impotant. Besides the author mentioned about the letter during (1302-702) between Al-Nasar Mohammad and Mahmmod Ghazan before the battle (Muriage Al Suffar) started.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 266-283
After the fall of the Assyrian State in the year of 612 B.C., the Arab tribes started wandering in the western and north western areas of Iraq and in the eastern and south eastern areas of Syria.
After the fall of Babylon in the year of 538 B.C. by the Akhmaned, this area came to be Known as "Arabia", i.e. the country of Arab. Hattra may be an Assyrian settlement. In the second century A.C., it became a religious and civil center for the wandering Arab tribes in this area.
It is worth mentioning that the location of such city between Iraq and Syria was important for the commerce to develop and commercial Asian goods to be transported from Iraq to Syria. The European goods were also transported though Syria to Iraq and the other Asian countries. These commercial activities developed this city to an Arab kingdom the Romans tried destroy this city but gailed. Meanwhile, Hattra mand use of the conflict between Saluges (i.e. the governors of Iraq, Iran and Syria) and Romans and later on between the Parthean and Roman. The development of Hattra is due to the peaceful policy of the parthean in that era. After the rise of the Sasynain State in the year of 224 A.C., Ardasher tried to occupy it, but he failed. At the time of his son, Sapor Ist, the latter was able to occupy this city in the year of 244 A.C.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 285-327
This paper divides the common foodstuffs at the early Islamic period into vegetables, wild vegetables and meats. Vegetables are mainly of cereals (like wheat and barley the latter was widely eaten). It also includes fruits like dates (which was the main food for the Muslim warriors due to its high nutrition value), grapes, figs, pomegranates, etc, Vegetables like melon, cucumber, oninon, and garlic, etc. (the last two are unpleasant though not for bidden). The widespread wild vegetables at that time were manna and tuffles. The paper refers to the various types of meat like veal, beef, poultry, fish. It refer, as well, to the fact that the early Muslims used to have three main meals, breakfast, lunch and supper.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 328-352
Doubtlessly coins have a special importance in characterizing and knowing some matters which have relationship with the time in which the coins were made in. They are considered official documents that couldn’t be distorted. The error in the coins is very rare. Coins are the main resource if the sources are limited. The importance is not according the purity of the metal or the weights , moreover , the importance is in the writings and pictures inscripted on. So we know the history and the place of manufacture and occasionally the name of the person who commanded the operation of making the coins and the limits of his religious and living authority and some other features of live he was living.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 353-389
The family is concerned the unique social environment for man, since his birth, and whole his life. The families are not same, when the family is good, organized and cohesive, naturally, the child’s breeding, will be easy. While the child who lives in sdisinteg rated family suffer. from conflict and problems between the parents, it is reflected on their children physically, psychological and socially. This causes some confusion and troubles. in his life and may lead him to death.
This research tries to study the relation between family disorganization and children mortality, and aims to know the main social characteristics of some disorganization families whose children have died. The research uses quote sampling method for studying 80 disorganization family who has a dead child. It also uses interviews and questionnaires in collecting information from them.
The study comes out with some conclusions such as:
1. The divorce is more affected types on children among disorganization families, as the study shows that 55% of dead children lived with disorganization families.
2. There is arelation between disorganization family and children as this. study show that 80% of children have lost their life after a year of getting disorganized.
3. The family disorganization is the main reason stands behind the careless of children during their illness. The study shows that 80% of dead children did not look after medically by their families.
4. This study shows that 67.5% children have been lost their life. because of neglect and delaying of cure medicine.
5. The study also notices that 70% of children does not get their ordinary and 62% of them living a miserable life
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 390-421
The research aims at studying the nature of the problems experienced by family under the U.S. occupation and the research has come to the result that the most problems faced by the family and poor relations, rampant unemployment and low standard of living of the family as well as the deterioration of services in general, leaving its harmful effects on the family.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 422-439
he present study aims at shedding light on Šubat– Enlil city by reviewing the records of Royal Mary. This city had played a significant role during the old Assyrian periods around (2000-1521) B.C.At that time it was recognized as capital by the Assyrian king Shamsh-Adad I and lasted for about thirty-two years 1814-1782 B.C. In the city the king had been receiving kings, ambassadors, and emissaries...etc.
Similarly , he contracted many pacts in the city and launched many military campaigns. Thus the city had been marked out as a political and economical center. Moreover , the Assyrian influence expanded a lot during the second mellinuim B.C. however , the role of this city got deterioted after the death of its king which led to a political void. This encouraged their enemies to contract a counter alliances against it. Its political and economical role began to fanish away , and it is hardly mentioned in the historical records
The Building Structures of Mosul in the Ottoman Reign Depicted by Carsten Niepuhr's Voyage A Contrastive Study Vein Zedan
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 440-474
The voyage of the Danish Carsten Niepuhr to Iraq is one of the historical expeditions documenting the history of Iraq in general, and the history of Mosul in particular in the mid of the 18th century A.D. The importance of this voyage comes from the descriptions and depictions it provides of a number of cultural and political aspects of the city.
The present research sheds light on the building structures of Mosul in the Ottoman reign as depicted by the voyage of Carsten Niepuhr. The Danish voyager arrived at the city of Mosul in (1765 A.D/ 1178 A.H) when it was one of the vassal territories of the Ottoman Empire and was ruled by Al-Jaleeli dynasty (1136-1249 A.H/ 1726- 1834 A.D), the founder of which was Abdul-Jaleel. During the reign of this dynasty, Mosul had witnessed remarkable building improvements and expansions and many buildings were constructed such as mosques, markets, schools and courts. Those building constructions left prominent construction remains which outline the distinctive architectural structures of Mosul. Niepuhr focused during his stay at the city on a number of prominent constructions, religious buildings and facilities and hence, provided us with a clear and comprehensive picture of what those buildings and constructions were like back in that period of time. However, in order to have an overall comprehension and clear visualization, the present study analyzes the voyage records and compares these records with the documents of the local history of the city aiming at authenticating Niepuhr's records and adding more analyzing information of the buildings and of what is left of them.
The present study falls into several parts. First, an overview of the Iraqi city of Mosul during the Ottoman reign is presented. Second, the identification of Niepuhr and his expedition and the depictions he made of the buildings and constructions at the city in that period are illustrated. The analysis of these depictions according to historical and architectural data is also provided. Furthermore, a variety of relevant sources and references has been consulted. Finally, a number of photos, a map of the buildings and constructions Niepuhr's depicted and a map showing his trip from Baghdad to Mosul are included in the study.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 475-487
The present study tries to shed light on the this topic which is cure for baldness and hair loss and their methods of treating in the ancient Iraq. This topic is of significant. It is among the subjects that made man in the past as well as in the present think twice to find solution for these diesease because they closely related with human appreance as far as cosmetics is concerned. It is important for every human being especially for women.
In the ancient times, Iraqi people tried their best to keep their hair and not to be lost. This consequently lead to baldness. Human instinct pushed man to try what are available in the nature like plants. mineral or animal substances in oder to get acess to the most successful method of treating hair-loss and baldness.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 488-523
The study aims at identifying the present status of the Department of Biology at the College of science at the University of Mosul, as specialized library, Its types parttens, services, collections and acquisitions, and technical services followed. It is based on case study method and collecting data through interviews with persons responsible for the library, and questioneirs produceds to a sample of its users.
The study comes out with some conclusions , the most important of which is the need for professional library staff specialized in the field of library and information science.
The study also presents some recommendations , among which is to improve the internet and serving sufficient computer devices to use it in the library.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 524-567
The present study tries to shed light on Resource Description and Access (RDA), which could be an heir to Anglo- American Cataloging rules as an alternative to their revised and amended editions of AACR with its different revisions. RDA comes as an essential to meet the needs of the rapidly vital developments and meets different variables including the rules of RDA and their impacts on the area of library science in general and the field of cataloging in particular which is dominated by internet and the important publication.
The study uses the analytical descriptive method through defining the variables which led to issuing (RDA) rules.
One of the important conclusions of the study shows that RDA rules are not isolated from the preceding traditional rules of cataloging which have become inadequate to meet the requirements of processing the internet resources and the other electronic media, and to match the new developed standards, internet protocols and markup languages (Metadata, MARC21(), XML, etc) RDA rules match also the new models of FRBR and FRAR.
Among the suggestions of the study are: urging libraries, information centers, and other academic institution concerned with libraries and information to adopt (RDA)rules; training the catalogers to apply these rules in their own institutions; and these rules to be translated into Arabic by qualified regional or international institutions
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 568-588
This paper deals with the object which is one of the main pillars of verbal sentence that has a transitive verb in both Akkadian and Arabic.
The paper sheds light on most phenomena and cases that are relevant.
The sections of the paper were arranged starting from the definition of the object, showing the effect and the grammatical cases and the changes that take place on both of them regarding number and gender. Then, we tackled its position in the sentence.
It was noted that the object has various position in Akkadian while its Arabic counterpart was put at the front or deferred.
Then, we showed its types by clarifying it most important forms. we also came across an issue which has paramount importance in showing the object, namely, the factors which affect it ,among which the transitive verbs are the leading ones
Finally, we presented the case of multiple objects in the sentence by putting forward a number of affective verbal forms, noting that many of the previously mentioned cases were compared with Arabic , wherever necessary
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 590-620
I put this study in the hands of readers, I want to show that great numbers of advertisements distributed in the center of the city .There sentences are written on the faces of the shops, and stores. They are officially written. in Arabic Language or other Languages. Expressing their own selves sometimes, or offering their good services in other times. Some other advertisement written to make influence on the people and attract them. Some of them hanging inside the buildings and other outside of the buildings by different of ways of advertisement which are available, such as News papers, magazines, posters, T.V, radio, walls, and vehicles. Some advertising in form of an audio or as a music. to stop the walking man or to attract the listener, and to make the people pleased as the roaming. Vendor did besides the silent advertisement, talking ones which convey the message the state of their owners or advertising about what are they want to say. So my watching and listening these advertisings motives me to start study the language of advertisement just in Mosul city. For all these reasons I went looking at what is written and concentrate on what is spoken .I wrote these by my own self.once I have finished my tour in the markets and between the roaming vendors and walking towards the owner of the vehicles ,reading the news papers and magazines. I reviewed what I have collected, I started my analyzing and classifying to explain what I have got from my research to submit clear message to the reader about the language of advertisement in Mosul city ,and to get useful results after shedding light on the following articles with short pause for the definition of the advertisement, its aims, and its tools: They are as follown:
1. Written advertisement (visible, or readable).
a. News advertisement
1. News advertisement written in Arabic in Arabic letters.
2. News advertisement written in non- Arabic Language.
b. Influence advertisement
1. Inside trade shops, official or non- official.
2. In the News papers, magazines, T.V, radio, cinema, theater, pictures, moving batches, panels, firm or moving posters on the transportations publishing on the walls and parks and game cities.
2.Audio advertisement by producing or sounds.
3.Visible advertisement by state reference.
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 633-658
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 659-685
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 686-706
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 707-717
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2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 720-737
2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 738-765
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2010, السنة 40, العدد 58, الصفحة 800-809