ISSN: 0378-2867

Volume 40, Issue 57

Volume 40, Issue 57, Summer 2010, Page 1-800

Names of Mecca in the Quranic Contexts

Fir; s A. Abdul-Qadir

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 1-30

The current paper aims at studying the Quranic verses in which the qualities and names of the holy city, namely, Mecca are mentioned. The study crystallized after pondering on the verses that mention the names of Mecca explicitly or mention some qualities of it. The study falls into two main parts: the first part concerns with the explicit names like: Mecca, Becca, Ka'ba, Al-Balad, Al-Bait, Um-u-l-Qura ……etc. As for the second part, it concerns with the most recurrent qualities of the holy city, i.e. Mecca. Sometimes, these qualities may be in combination with the explicit names, others may be qualities alone. This isolation may be satisfying, because these qualities like proper names confined only to Mecca and not applied to other cities. Some of these qualities are mentioned once and others are mentioned twice or thrice with different forms from the same root. We have selected the name Mecca rather than others as a title for our paper because it is the most famous name. We have analyzed the names and qualities linguistically and semantically in addition to giving a Quranic statistics for each one.

The Influence of Dr. Mustafa Nasif on Pre-Islamic Poetry Researchers

Batool Hamdi AlBustani

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 43-62

Dr. Mustafa Nasif has valuable opinions in the pre-Islamic poetry and his opinions emanate from Young theory in the collective unconsciousness, which he presented in his studies entitled (The literary image, the theory of meaning in the Arabic criticism and another reading to our earlier poetry). The researchers were influenced by his visions, some of them agreed with him and some rejected them including Dr. AbdulJabbar AlMuttalibi, Dr. Adil AlBayyati, Dr. Ahmed Kamal Zeki, Dr. Kamal ABulDheeb and others.
The research tackled the symbols of night, the wild bull and wild donkey, mare, water and woman between them and Dr. Nasif and the research concluded that Dr. Nasif’s reading of the pre-Islamic poetry was new in which he was considered a pioneer as he penetrated far behind the text and that what the new critical studies call for.

Mutual Influence between the Jurisprudence and Syntactic

Muhammad I. Muhammad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 63-80

In the present study, we shed light on the extent of affection and influence between the jurisprudence and the grammatical principles. Reviewing the history of these two sciences, we observed the extent of their intervention and how jurisprudence principles impact greatly upon the grammatical ones. We can say that there is no Islamic science has the same effect on the grammatical heritage as this science has. There are many factors combing with each other to make jurisprudence principles the source from which grammarians obtained their principles. These are represented in many aspects, for example, the grammarians trying to codify their general principles under science of jurisprudence principles. The result of that trial was science of grammatical principles. Yet, these affection and influence remain formally. They do not exceed the content nor go beyond the method of codification. Each science has its own technique in treating the even though the terms are similar because the scientists of each science work in the other one. Thus, the scientific certificate in the religious sciences is awarded just to those who gain mastery in both rational and traditional sciences.

Homonymy in the Prophetic Traditions: A Study in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Moslim

Mohammed H. Barjas; Nash; at A. Mahmood

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 81-116

Studying homonymy in the Prophet’s traditions is considered very important since it deals with the relationship between the linguistic aspect and semantic one. It facilitates the understanding the meanings of words, and the texts of Prophet’s traditions. Understanding the Prophet’s traditions, which include words of more than one meaning, depends on understanding the significances of such words in the Arabic. So, significance of the text should be taken into consideration in order to understand those words mentioned in the Prophet’s traditions. If the clues that help us to understand the text are not available, then the meanings of that homonymous should be considered, if not, one of the meanings will be against other ones without any evidence.
We collected many homonymous words from Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Moslim. The homonymy in these words may be used by the Arab linguists or by the Holy Koran and Sunna. Also, we explained their meanings in the Prophet’s traditions in which they were mentioned according to the contexts and cotext of the text.

Paradoxical Dichotomies in Surat Al-Ra’d

Mazin Mwafaq Sideeq

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 117-135

This study tackles one of the most important concepts which is the concept of contrast and eventually duality on the rhetoric and critical levels from one hand and on the semantic level from the other hand. This concept was applied in one of the great suras in the Holy Quran which is Surat Al-Ra’d.
The reason behind choosing this sura is the several
themes it includes about the universal aspect (Creation and Formulation).

Educational Principles in the Glorious Qurān

Aras Mohammed Salih

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 137-157

As we see the holly Qurān approach in education concentrates on the believing of God. This point were the beginnings of all educational concepts, and the holly Qurān being the uniformal view of all, with educational principles goals to faith and good, growing the responsibilities’ feelings in humans. In this view we conclude that the religion was the power of living in Islam and the spirits of science and the spirits of community. After all we must collect all the efforts of every one to build a uniform educational program depends upon Islamic principles in all social, political and economic relationships, for saving our sons, ourselves and our community from weakness, instabilities and ignorance. All these being a strong basis for safety and development of our country.

Linguistic Aspects in Al-Mutakhab Book

Ahmed Salih Younis

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 159-194

Abu Al-Hassan known as “kiraa alnamil” lit. means (ant’s legs) is regarded as one of the prominent linguists; he is well known among those who are concerned in linguistics. He offered invaluable assistance as represented by his work, to mention some: kitabul almuntakhab min ghreeb kalamu alarab lit. means (selected speech from obscure words in Arabic). This is considered as a source among the sources of the strangers in language. In his book, he collected the strange words in Arabic, classified them into several parts and explain them and finally provided evidence from Arabic poem and prose. The book shows that the author creates an interest which totally occupied his mind. Due to his scientific mind and the importance of this book, we intend to investigate this book linguistically so as to uncover this magnificent work and to display the author’s linguistic views.
The research is initiated by a prelude; it includes a brief biography of the linguist including his name, surname, his birth, linguistic trend, his work and death. Then, we studied the main remarkable linguistic phenomena in his book: polysemy, antonymy, derivation, substitution and syntactic inversion.

Al-A'dhra'a in Orthography

Omar H. Al-Kubeisi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 195-228

It is a short poem deals with Arabic orthography comprises 44 lines. The study tackles five of its rules which is Al-Hamza, ta’ al-marbouta and al-maftoha, Al-Alef, what is pronounced but not written and vice versa in a detailed discussions.

Al-FAZARI and the Book of Bibliography of News and Events

Nehal Khalil Al-Sharaby

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 229-244

You should know that no one can engross the aim and no human being reaches the finite.
This research a simple attempt to study the life of an honorable scholar and famous narrator known with the name of Al-FAZARI. What he introduced in prophet’s bibliography became well known and he got famous because of that. His book “Bibliography of news and event’s” had been lost, and we didn’t receive but a few derivation found scattered in historical books.

Andalus Financial Affairs through Al-Muqtabus Book

al Y. Mustafa; Khaz

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 245-268

The present study investigates the financial services in Andalus (Spain). This is to be done by reviewing the book entitled with (Al-Muqtabas) lit. means (excerpt) written by Ibn Hayan Al-QurTubi (469A.H/ 1076A.D).
This paper starts with an introduction to explain the Andalus topography viewing kinds of metals animal warfare and agricultural materials. It also makes clear other fields to explain financial issues like taxes. Similarly, it is to study the expenditure of the whole state and those which are particular to Ommiad palace and the other for the public. Finally, the paper also studies the financial institutions and the coining of money.

The Role of Iraq in Supporting the Prophet Muhammad

Khatab I. Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 269-300

This study aims at talking about the role of Iraqis in patronizing and condoling the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) at the time the unbelievers upset and hurt the prophet and followers.
The first existence of Iraq at the theatre of message was presented throughout the personality Adaas Meti at the tenth year of the glorious Prophetic mission at Mekkah time. By the time the tough day has continued into the evening most hurtfully against the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) for acute sufferings and torture he was tasted by Al-Taif people. The night has fallen till the Islamic movement has moved to Al-Taif which was refused by the latter, shifted to another world, the world of fairy of Nasibin people, that abundant city of peninsula land to road of caravans from Mosul to sham and the role of Shiban people in Iraq who have believed in the movement of Islam but their circumstances and the will of almighty God which kept them from taking the Prophet with them to the land of Iraq.
Additionally the Battle of Ziker which Iraqis fought on behalf of the people generally, and the road in which the splendid follower Salman Al-Farisi passed, that helped him to reach belief in the way of Islam was on the land of Iraq in the city of Mosul. This study explains all these matters with some details.

Emancipation and the Loyalty of Liberation among Arabs before Islam and Era of the Message

Rana Salim Mohammad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 301-318

Arab loyalties before Islam, vary such as alliance and neighborhood. Liberation loyal is one of them which is not only known by Arabs, but also known by other nations. This loyalty is the one which firmly connected to slavery. So, the main of divine mission is to dry out slavery sources. Islam doesn’t try to repeal slavery and put an end to it at one time, for it was one of the economic bases in its society at that time. It follows a quiet gradual way and succeeded in decreasing slavery sources by varying the means and ways of liberation and saving the individuals from slavery chains then advancing them toward the aimed freedom by mankind.
Emancipation loyalty becomes a social connection very close to kinship among family members which achieves many advantages for both the slave and liberator. Islam gives rights and duties for each one of them which make theme practice their freedom and various activities in life.

The Ideological Dimension of Sociology: A Study in Sociological Theory

Tahir Haso Zebari

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 319-356

All of us bear ideology consciously or unconsciously. All of us relate to and respect certain values such as freedom, equality, authority, and so on. Some other carry tribal things, even those who deny that or claim that they have liberated from it. So, we look at the world through our beliefs and ideas, all of us associate with those who hold similar ideas to us, and more than that, all of us look at sensitive issues such as homeland, religion, nationality. Thus our beliefs create us and determine our choices and behaviors.
Without ideology we are individuals without conscience, leadership, and order. Without it also, we do not have a perception towards others and the world which we want to establish. Thus ideology creates our motivations and positions at both individual and institutional levels. The inventor of the concept ideology Destutt detracy in his book Principles of Ideology argues that ideology is the science of beliefs. Thus the theorist or thinker is a product of those beliefs and it is natural for ideology to affect his or her views about society and subsequently imposes on him or her concentration on some of the variables of reality as the most effective variables.
If the ideological function of a theory was one of its functions, the focus on ideology—as the main focus—was one of the practices that have precluded the growth of theory in western context and our reality in Middle East. But, can we conclude that the objective fact has no existence? And subsequently we should avoid the search for it? Is it possible to establish on the principle of relativism? All theories are intellectual structures without having any link to the objective reality. And subsequently as a matter of principle they are all equal.
The researcher accordingly studies the relationship between ideology and sociology to understand the nature of ideology and its contribution to directing of theory, method, and research. The research also examines how this relationship has affected the scientific and objective dimensions of study and research. He tries to understand the position of sociologists in the countries of the world about the current sociological theories and their success in founding a unified sociology which is far from ideological orientation and studying social phenomena and issues as they exist in reality objectively.
The study examines this relationship as follows:
1. Sociological studying of ideology (concept and beginning)
2. Characteristics and functions of ideology
3. Ideology and the sociological theory
4. Ideology and sociological research
5. The demise of ideology in sociological studies
The study concludes that sociology in recent stage is occupied with theories carry different insights of reality. These insights occasionally reach to a point of comparison. It is logical that the debate and dialogue between these multi theories help in developing a general and comprehensive theory. This is conditioned by the necessity of three issues: the first is the necessity of avoidance from the ideological debate as a beginning to the connection of different theories. This relates to the necessity of avoidance from ideological debate in the context of the debate over theoretical issues. The second emphasizes on the necessity of commitment to the dynamic nature of the variables of reality. The third focuses on the necessity of commitment to the rules of scientific methodology in dealing with theoretical structures.

The Juveniles (Garbage-Collectors): A Case Study in Mosul City

Ahmed Yousif Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 357-390

Because of hard circumstances our country is passing through for long years, especially after the occupation, new careers appeared in our Iraqi society, among them is collecting garbage, i.e., searching, in the gar-barge. This search is for materials or things that can be sold, like papers, magazines, empty soft drink; bottles, plastic or metal pieces and other consumed stuff. These materials can be sold in special markets daily, and then reproduced in certain industries.
It has become something normal to see a number of Juveniles searching in the garbage containers. Their faces and nails have become black because of garbage, and also their clothes are covered with dirt.
The hard circumstances forced many of the juveniles to quit playing. They gave up their childhood in order to make living. They are not homeless or foundling, but they do have families. Some of them are not able to make their living under life's hard circumstances and high prices. As a result, their families living who are suffering from poverty. The study studies the following:
1. Identifying the extent, the size and whereabouts of this phenomenon.
2. Identifying the reasons that pushed the juveniles to practice this career.
3. Identifying the social and healthy effects of this career on the juveniles.
The researcher used method of a case study. He chose 12 cases. Then he studied every case individually in order to identify the circumstances and reasons, and also to identify its effects on juveniles as far as social and healthy respects are concerned.

The Role of Scholars of Humanities in Dormitories: A Sociological Analytical Study in Administrative Work

id M. H. Al-Ta; Mohammed F. Al-Qazaz

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 391-406

This study identifies the person by the importance of the humanity specializations for the work in the dormitory, and they considered as a fundamental supports in the supervision and administrative work, so they have a hard work to be able to management the service of the establishments. And because it consist of an educational specializations which going to build the person and the community in a right way of the ideas and social culture also to build the human community.

Arabic Adjectives: Their Characteristics and Role in Information Storage and Retrieval

Nazar M. A. Qassim

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 407-403

The aim of the study is to find out the characteristics of the Arabic adjectives and what they can do in information storage and retrieval operations. It displays their relationship with Arabic nouns; presents their formation; shows their location, sex, number and cases; states each one’s advantages in information storage and retrieval with references to their counterparts (if any) in English. It presents a summary of the indications of Arabic adjectives to the nouns they describe. It concludes that Arabic adjectives have far better indications to the nouns they describe than the English ones. It gives three recommendations aiming at raising the efficiency of information storage and retrieval through investing the characteristics of Arabic adjectives.

Distinction of Singular in Akkadian: “A Comparative Study in the Light of the Classical and Arabicised Languages”

Zuhayr Dh. Sa; eed Al-Rifaa

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 431-450

This research has been chosen in order to shed light on an important grammatical subject in Akkadian Language.
Distinction is divided into two types, namely, individual or (singular) and attribution, the research includes the attribution (singular) including various subjects in relation to the number which is divided into: the frank number and the obscure number. Similarly it studies other distinctive forms like: weights, measurements and their parallels, then what were the amounts, also what was the branch of distinction.
This research also includes the aspects of similarities and relationship between the distinction in Akkadian and Arabic, Ugaritian, Aramaean, and Hebrew.

Shamsh-Shum-Okin, the Ruler of Babylon and His Political Role (668-648 B.C)

Sabah Hameed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 451-478

The present study deals with Shamsh – Shum – Okin one of the important figures in the history of Mesopotamia (668-648 B.C).
He was the ruler of Babylon when his brother king Ashur – Ban – Apli was the ruler of Assyria (669-627 B.C). The study reviews the events that took place between the two brothers, the sons of king Ashur – akhi – Eddin and the extent of the effect of their mother Naqia Zakoto on the issue of the succession to throne after her husband's death who divided the kingdom between the two heirs. Before that we shed light on the lineage of the family of Shamsh – Shum – Okin, a short account of his social and cultural life, and his architectural achievements. It also views the nature of the relations between the two brothers the rebellion of Shamsh – Shum – Okin against his brother Ashur – Ban – Apli which was preceded by a number of events which altogether proved to be good reason to ignite the war between them which ended in the victory of Ashur – Ban – Apli over his brother who committed suicide for he could not afford the calamity despite Ashur – Ban – Apli’s attempts to be careful and to solve his differences with his brother peacefully. But unfortunately all attempts failed and the disaster took place which led the country to destruction in all aspects of life. There was a great famine in Babylon, which resulted in its fall by 648 B.C. after a siege which lasted two years. The study of the events shows that the reason behind the problem was the unfair division of the kingdom by their father who installed his younger son on the throne of Assyria and as a result Babylon. The smaller part, had gone to his elder son, Shamsh – Shum – Okin not to mention the role of the grandmother Naqia in the events.

Artistic Works and the Cuneiform Inscription on Cylinder Seals of the Akkadian Kingdom Servicemen

Mohammad Hamza

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 479-506

This study is one of the modern areas in cuneiform study which depends heavily on the analysis of the artistic work and its comparison with related texts which sheds light on the history of the kingdom. It reflects an important aspect of the civilization golden Akkadian age of the art in Mesopotamia created by Akkadian servicemen whose achievements have been recorded by history. It aims at shedding light on the cuneiform inscriptions on these seals and analyse their contents. It also introduces the formulas of the forms and patterns inscribed on them and what they tell us about the servicemen who made them: their names and professions throughout the Akkadian ages, the mention of which has been neglected by scholars like Frankfort and Moortgat. In addition, it shows the themes of the artistic works inscribed on them and how they developed with time in order to prove that these servicemen’s texts and their scenes. Art among the most beautiful pieces of carving and inscription of all civilizations. The Akkadian service through making such pieces managed to combine the seal with skill and to established a school that the specialists of our time cannot do without it in their studies.

Situation of Assyria in the Reign of the Assyrian King Sin-Shar-Ushkun (622-612 B.C.)

Khalid Ali Khattab

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 507-531

The era of the Assyrian king Sin-Shar-Ushkun is of the critical and hard periods in which the Assyrian kingdom has experienced in. The country witnessed many difficulties. The kingdom subdivided into many provinces and districts that were already under the control the Assyrian kingdom during the period of his father the king Assur-Banipal.
Similarly there were many problems inland in the capital Nineveh itself. The internal conspiracies were plotted in the Assyrian royal palace. Moreover, there were many political alliances against Assyrian by the neighboring countries like Medians and Scythians. These were behind the dismembering the Assyrian Royal palace. The study sheds light on this vague period due to the paucity of references that are available on this are which could be ascribed to the problems then.

Negation in the Akkadian Language: A Comparative Study with Arabic Language

Hassanein H. Abdulwahed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 531-556

The present study deals with negation in the Akkadian language compared with its counterpart in Arabic. It studies the negation and devices used to negate the nominal and verbal sentences both in Arabic and Akkadian languages. Similarly, the study shows the similarities and differences between both languages as far as negation is concerned in order to show their originality. During the writing of this study, we have benefited from the Akkadian references that were both in Arabic and English as well as the grammatical books of Arabic. This examples cited in the study all are written in both Latin and Arabic words. This is because Arabic belongs to the family of Arabicised languages. Therefore, Arabicisation will explain for the readers the interrelation between the two languages. We have relied on the old Babylonian language that was commonly spoken in the old Babylonian period (2006-1595)B.C. for comparison. This dialect preserved many aspects of the Akkadian grammar.

Islamic Fundamentalism in Current Western Thought: “A Historical Study”

Hashim A. Al-Ta

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 40, Issue 57, Pages 557-580

Islamic fundamentalism is one of the significant subjects in the area and Islamic world. This topic represents a chief heading for detailed studies written by western writers. In these writings, the writers shed light on the eye-catching growing Islamic revival. It could be say that what have been written and what are being written in the west about the
Islam and Islamists were not coming out of the scientific research but rather in congruity with intellectual starting
points and ideological dispositions. The present study investigate the western stand towards what so-called (Islamic Fundamentalism). The study falls into two parts: The first deals with the historical reviews of the relation between Islam and the west. The second part, on the other hand, deals with describing the fundamentalism in the history of Islam and Christianity. In addition to mentioning the motives behind fundamentalism, the third part focuses on the western stand towards the Islamic fundamentalism. This is subdivided into two trends: The first is against the Islamic fundamentalism. The second adopts a mature thinking for presenting a western policy understanding the reasons and motives behind this fundamentalism in order to arrive at an agreement between west and the Islamic world.