ISSN: 0378-2867

Volume 39, Issue 53

Volume 39, Issue 53, Spring 2009, Page 1-746

Abu-Adnan’s Linguistic Narrations in Al-Azhari’s Book

Muhammad S. Hameed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 17-44

This paper introduces one of the most well-known linguists. His contributions were great in the field of linguistics.
This work consist of an introduction and two parts: First part deals with his life. Second part tackles his narrations classified Alphabetically. A list of references has been mention at the end of research.

The Argumentation of Desire and Antagonism in Omru’u El-Qeis’s Mo’allaqa

ayad M. S. Al-Yozbaki

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 45-66

Throughout a contemporary psycho-analytic method and an urgent synthesis composed of multiple methodological capabilities which are either out-of-text or textual, This research: “The argumentation of desire and antagonism in Omru’u El-Qeis’s Mo’allaqa” tackles the concept of desire in its dialectical contradiction besides the antagonistic tendency of the poet appeared in this major long poem. And via to all images and paints that represented the essence of the technical structure of the poem, the research, also investigated the development of the concept of the desire right from level of enjoyment and biological satisfaction up to the human existential level at which the desire turns into the essence of man who may vanish for the sake of gaining it as it happens with subject of Omru’u Al-Qeis.

Criticizing the Linguistic Origination of Pre-Islamic Poetry

Basim I. Qasim

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 67-90

This research is a modern attempt to review and examine the linguistic origination of the words and lexical items of our Arabic of what our ancient linguists had written.
The researcher has found that this origination is based on estimation and intuition, in addition to scientific perception, inference, and induction which our linguists are characterized by its good features and merits. On the other hand, this may be part of the weakness which enables us to enter into this field and to examine its accuracy, scientificness, and using modern linguistic knowledge in our age. Thus the researcher has intended to discover and to know the ancient A’riba languages (sisters of the Arabic language) to examine the Arabic linguistic origination as well as reviewing it by depending on contrastive linguistics between Arabic and closely related languages. The origin of them are almost the same. This is instead of relying on estimation and intuition Arab linguists whenever they don’t know the abstract origins of some words and utterances. The researcher has based his comparison on the pre-Islamic poetry utterances since they are the essential in the origination of the Arabic language and because it is the researchers domain. So, can we get use of contrastive linguistics with the ancient languages by a new origination of the meanings of Arabic language in a way different from that adopted by our old Arab linguists? This is what the researcher is trying to prove.

Parallelism and its Rhythmic and Semantic Influence: A Practical Study in the Divan of (Anarchy in not its Time) by Hamid Sa’eed

Muhamamd J. H. Al-Badrani

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 91-116

Being a rhythmic technique, parallelism is considered of the most important stylistic techniques in the poetry of Hamid Sa’eed who has succeeded in exploiting it in serving the text and enriching its rhythm and supporting its sign. This research discussed the parallelism on the phonological, morphological, grammatical levels, as well as on the level semantic contrast, the culminational uprise and the parallelism on rhyme level up to reach its influence shaping on the musical structure of the divan.

The Allusive Image in the Umayyad Love Poetry

Salih Mohammad Hassan

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 137-148

The research suggests the title “hint love poetry” to what the researches called political or satiric poetry in the Umayyad period. The researcher sees that what is meant in this poetry is not the woman herself but for untold purpose the woman is the active means in it. It also includes implied motives.

The Methodological Frames for Proving the Divine Entity between the Mental and the Cited Evidence

Salih Khalil Hamodi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 149-188

This study tackles one of the most important issues related to the existence of man and life; it is an issue studied by nearly everyone because it is related to the existence of man .The subject of this study is the divine Entity and the title of the study is ((The Methodological Frames for Proving the Divine Entity between the Mental and the Cited Evidence)). The study tries to put forward this issue from both the mental and the cited evidence. The rational people have proved and agreed on that the world has an all maker, an all maker, an all creator and an all cherisher; they substantiated that by abstract mental evidence. It is widely known that people, with their different religions and beliefs and since the beginning of the creation until now, they do belief and agree that universe has a capable willing creator, but they disagreed upon determining the concept of the God. Despite that people know the existence of God, they worshipped others along with him all that things are made by man except that brought by the prophets and messenger. For that reason, the study consist of an introduction, preface and two sections consisting of five topics. The introduction is the preamble and the motive to write this subject and to elaborate the methodology. The preface comprises a definition to avoid the readers confusion, a list of terminologies to clarify their meanings and determine their limits; so it is a part that clarify their meanings determine their limits; so it is apart that clarifies the issues that have been ambiguous within the study. Section one is monotheistcal frame, which is the most important, consisting of two topics: Topic one: searching for the God; it contains the mental ways and methods. The study tries to prove that through establishing a decisive proof and this is what has been agreed upon by the rational people of the world. The second part of topic tow deals with the Quranic way of proving the existence of the God by evidence and proofs. Some of these evidence can be understood from the contexts of the ayahs related to the creation showing the evidence of possibility which is a mental one, and the evidence of occurrence through investigating the Quranic ayahs which are narrated in a captivating style. Topic two talks about substantiating the oneness of Allah; these evidence are mental such as the evidence of successiveness and the evidence of prevention. Section two tackles the ways leading to the sound belief (creed) which are the ways that guide the man to understand the existence of the God and how He can be known. This is an epistemic frame which should be thoroughly known and can be represented by three ways as explained by the rational people; these three ways by means of which things can be known are; the sound senses, the truthful tradition and the mind. The sound senses and the truthful tradition are two important means to know the sciences; the senses are the windows of mind to the universe since the mind cannot realize the information without the senses and this is something taken for granted in spite of that some Islamic and Western schools suspect the ability of senses to get knowledge. The study discusses this issue and gives evidence which prove that mind cannot realize the information except by means of senses. The scholars refer that there is a second way to make use of the information which is the truthful tradition way. This was defined by the scholars as the tradition agrees with the reality and applied to it. An example of this is the (Al-Khabar Al-Mutawater) the recurrent tradition which has been agreed upon by people to be true since those who recounted it cannot collude to lie, so it cannot be regarded as a lie. The third way is the mind. This study handles the issue of Does the mind stand alone to know the information? Or the Islamic Law will be its evidence to do that? The researcher has mentioned the opinions of the scholars and considered that the mind cannot stand alone to know something unless it is guided to the right direction. By means of these three ways specified by the scholars, it has been found that these ways are related to each other regarding the process of obtaining knowledge and they are among the most important knowledge to know the all Creator (Allah). The study reached at some important findings and the most important one is the meeting of reason and tradition. Also, it showed that there is no contradictory between them, but they are concomitant to reach the way to know the Divine Entity. Furthermore, the study shows that the mind is subject to the Islamic Law and serves it to accept and understand it.

Affix in The Arabic Lexeme Phonological Study

Khalid Hazim Idan

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 189-206

Affixation in Arabic is one of issues in which grammarian a time when phonology was one of the subjects that should tackled in grammar book.
The present paper studies affixes Being a phonological lexical issue in Arabic it is also related to the sentence structure which is syntactically studied.
To achieve the goal of uncovering the phonological relationships among these affixes, the plan of the paper falls into two directions. The first one introduces these affixes lexical meaning and technical meaning, the number of the affixes pattern. These affixes are previewed morphologically.
The second one deals with the phonological features which make them called affixes through studying each one separately.
It was found out that the harmony of “Alef, waw, and ya”, and their softness made the as affixes. The softer the letter, the more recurrent as an affix it is.
Almubarid did not exclude “alhaa” from the affixes in Arabic.

Corroboration in Surat Yousif in the Glorious Quran: Syntactic Study

id Imad Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 207-236

This paper investigates the phenomenon of “corroboration” in the surat (a chapter in the Glorious Quran) Yousif that forms the corner stone in conducting the dialogue throughout this sura.
This phenomenon plays a vital role in showing the hidden meanings behind the dialogue among characters in
this sura.
This paper involves a prelude in which the term Tawkeed “confirmation” is tackled linguistically and logically. Also it investigates corroboration styles used. They are classified into two parts: firstly, the verbal corroboration, and secondly corroboration via certain expressions that include various meaning.
Finally, it includes conclusions in addition to an appendix clarifying the positions in which corroboration styles have been used.

Colour in Obaidullah bin Qeis’s Poetry “Al-Ruqyyat”

Hamad Mohammed Fathi Al-Jubouri

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 237-254

Colour represent a mystery of the world and a riddle on which this phenomenon, with its day and night, earth and sky, is based. The importance of colour in the poetry of the Umaid poet is manifested according to a strategy which has derived its elements and pillars from the nature of the elevated poetic text, from what can be noticed by probing deep in the poets poems. The following study is regarded as the heart of the poetic theme whose effects start right from their effective presence in the colour text.

Abu Bakir Al-Shibli: A Study in His Sofistic School

Khalil I. Jasim; Mufaq S. Nori

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 255-278

Abu Bakir Al-Shibli is regarded as one of the pioneers in Islamic sofism. To know his so fistic elements, the research includes his biography and sofistic understanding of the Quran and Al-Suna. The research also deals with the elements of sofism in Al-Shibli’s point of view in the light of devoting one’s self to Allah, the Almighty. In addition to his sofistic concept of Monotheism which opened a wide aspects of faith. Finally, the research sheds light on Al-Shibli’s isolation during his sofistic practices.

Ibn Badis’s Concept of Arabism and Islam (1889-1940)

Zuhair Ali Al-Nahas

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 279-296

Ibn Badis (1889-1940) was a man of thought, culture and restoration. He was really the pioneer of nationality thought and Islamic Arabic culture in Algeria. His concept of Arabism and Islam stemmed from his comprehension of the concept of mother nationality(Algeria) as something historical, real and present. Arabism for him is homeland and a nation that preceded Islam, and he did not find any distinction to be Amazyghian Algerian or Arabian Muslim. He was fighting under complex revolutionary circumstances when the French colonizer used all Kinds of compulsion and force that pushed the Algerian people to sacrifice about one million martyrs so as to achieve his identity, independence and his Arabic affiliation.

The Historian Role in the Islamic-Arab Civilization in Al-Sakhawi’s Writings

Mohammed Ali Salih

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 297-312

This research deals with the role that the Islamic-Arab Civilizations plays through the writings of the historian Al-Sakhawi. The research included several issues such as the importance and the benefit of history among other sciences, also the conditions the historian should have the foremost of which fair-mindedness, precession and not to overdo in scrutiny, and in criticism. In addition to the good knowledge whereby he narrates the events.
Moreover, the paper deals with the practical side in the writings of Al-Sakhawi through the returning to some of the biographies of historians which can be found in books like “Al-Dhao’a Al-Lami’a”. Similarly, the research considers the opinion of the Islamic law concerning writing history because Al-Sakhawi has listed writings history among the five essential Islamic Rules, i.e. (Wajb) the compulsory duty (Al-Mustahab) the recommended, (Al-Makroh) the reprehensive, (Al-Mubah) the permissive and (Al-Haram) the forbidden.
Also, the research explains some of the conditions that the contemporary Muslim historian should have.

Educational and Scholarly Trends in the Dept. of History in the College of Arts and Education

Bashar Akram

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 313-324

The present research tackles the educational and research approach in the Dept. of History in the Colleges of Arts and Education. It aims at determining the differences between the two approach. It compares them in order to put the two Depts. On the right track. The aim behind this is to discover if the titles of the two Depts. agree with and apply to their academic syllabuses.

Mechanisms of Coping with Youth Unemployment in Iraq

Rawaa Zaki Younis

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 325-342

Unemployment is the most serious problem facing different states of world-developing and developed states due to their consequences and implications in economic, social and political aspects. Such problems constitute a virgin area for growing social and psychological maladies, in addition to spreading violence and crime, reducing living standards, and increasing those who are under poverty level.

The Role of Social Factors in Scientific Knowledge

Tahir H. Zebari

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 343-388

The studies that emphasize on the impact of society on the specific types of knowledge go back to Auguste Comte (1798-1857) who connected certain social formations to precise kinds of knowledge: religious, philosophical, and scientific positivism. What can be understood from this law is that (Comte) believes that the thought (knowledge) is the engine and creator of society. He called for getting rid from all religious and metaphysical kinds of thought and recourse to methodology of natural sciences to reach to results that are similar to the results of natural sciences. He intended to discover the laws which regulate the life of individuals and societies. This approach takes us to the positive situation of science.
The contemporary studies do not intend to prove the idea that the content of scientific knowledge (scientific or experimental sciences) is empty from human and social elements. Subsequently, (decisive experiment) is no longer a crucial concept of science. There were many theories and ideas occurred and accepted without scientific reasons. These theories did not submit to decisive experiment. The knowledge with its different forms, whether they are humanities or natural, is affected by society's form and social status.
From this perspective, the study adopts the idea that asserts that theories and contemporary scientific discoveries submit to the influence of social factors in the content of knowledge. Thus, the science is affected by human impact which includes the society’s form, political interests, economic interests, social interests, ethical principles, and economic conflicts.
The study also examines the critiques proposed about the role of social factors in the content of scientific knowledge. It discusses these issues in order to insist on the role of social elements and conditions in the content of scientific knowledge. The study consists of the below topics:
1. The relationship between science and knowledge.
2. Sociology of knowledge
3. Sociology of science
4. The social knowledge and imitation to science
5. The situation of social knowledge in post positive-logical tendencies
6. Opponent tendencies for positivism in social thought.
7. The science is a relative social knowledge

The Role of School Library in Developing the Community Culture: Nineveh Directorate of Education Libraries as a Model

Mahmood S. Ismael; Akram M. Fathi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 389-414

The research aims at defining the traditional and modern concept of school library. The aims and function of school library which encourages students to read and prepares an educated and a ware generation capable of developing the community in all its aspects.
The school libraries in Iraq generally and in Nineveh province especially passed through many stages but the most important one is the issue of the school libraries law no. 54 in 1974 which established the scientific bases of the school library.
The research has come up with many results the most important one is that there are school libraries in Nineveh province that hold a good collection of rare and valuable books. These obtained during the previous years of its life. Some libraries have but few books, other libraries have no books at all, and there are many examples of that.
The study recommends that selection of school libraries collections of books should be done according to definite standards, as well as establishing a central school library for the directorate general of Nineveh education which resembles University of Mosul central library.

Electronic Information and Publishing on Internet

yad Qasim Al-Khaffaf

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 427-456

On connecting the local information networks, and consequently forming the international network, a substantial change has occurred in all means of communication. Accordingly, the electronic publishing has become an essential issue in the public life and in the areas of information, economics, politics, management, distribution, etc. Other multi-media also emerged to facilitate the process of publishing and communication. Also the international publishers, universities, research centers, information centers, libraries, companies and people have establishes their own cites on the internet. Therefore, electronic information on the internet has become a fact that has grown and spread within a short period of time. Thus, the importance of this study comes from these facts.
The study consists of five parts: the first part covers the issue of globalization and its influence on the process of communication, technological developments and the emergence of internet. The second part includes the developments that the internet has caused in the field of information. The third part identifies the electronic information and the reasons of its spread. The fourth part includes the forms of electronic publishing and identifies the electronic journalism, blogs, and you-tubes which have appeared recently and also the reasons behind the fast spread of these forms of electronic publishing and their effects on information and its media. The fifth part covers the electronic advertisement and its effects on the traditional and electronic information media. It also reflects the present status of information in the world. The study also provides a summary of the influence of information on the traditional information media with some conclusions.

Classification and Its Usage in the Central Libraries by a Unified Committee

ayad Yehya Khudeir

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 457-478

The present study sheds light on very important and common matter in the central libraries in Baghdad. This subject is the selection of classification number. The paper aims at introducing the problems that face the researcher in his searching. Similarly, it shows the role of classification in order to get an easy and quick access to the book(s) required. In spite of the technical devices being used in these libraries, the quick access to the book(s) still seems to be not applicable, unless full and correct data are given about the accessed book(s). The study review samples amounted to 381 books that were classified differently by different libraries. The study recommends to form a unified committee for classification in the central libraries in order to overcome this problem.

Marketing of Information Services: Its Concepts and Methods in Libraries

Sumaya Younis Al-Khaffaf; Rafal Nazar Al-Khyro

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 479-498

The research aims at providing a definition of the concept of information services marketing, its justifications, methods and the qualifications of a successful librarians involved in information marketing.
In addition to the role of information technology, particularly the internet and the reflections of this technology on the process of the services of information marketing in libraries.
The study comes up with the conclusion that the methods of marketing play an important role in the process of marketing, especially in the field of information services in libraries which lie benefit libraries similarly those libraries which hold their roles to develop the library services and finally to the benefits of library users and their attitudes towards the library.
The two researchers see that this is possible if the scientific theories of library information marketing are applied in the libraries and if a suitable plan or mechanism of work is put and followed by the libraries and likewise if we provide a sufficient library staff, if we use the internet in the process of information marketing as well.

Al-Awqaf Public Library at Mosul (A Case Study)

Wasan Sami Sa; dallah Al-Hadidi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 499-522

The study aims at identifying the present status of
Al-Awqaf public library at Mosul, its types of patrons, services, collections and the methods of acquisitions and technical services followed in it, as well as the management of the library. It is a case study based on collecting data through interviews with persons responsible for the library and the other library staff.
The study comes out with some conclusions, the most important of them is the need for professional library staff specialized in the field of library and information science.
The study also presents some recommendations, among which is to establish a joint committee from the staff of the library itself, and from outside professional librarians to put a formal written collection development policy for the library and to computerize the library services.

The study aims at identifying the present status of
Al-Awqaf public library at Mosul, its types of patrons, services, collections and the methods of acquisitions and technical services followed in it, as well as the management of the library. It is a case study based on collecting data through interviews with persons responsible for the library and the other library staff.
The study comes out with some conclusions, the most important of them is the need for professional library staff specialized in the field of library and information science.
The study also presents some recommendations, among which is to establish a joint committee from the staff of the library itself, and from outside professional librarians to put a formal written collection development policy for the library and to computerize the library services.

Al-Thiker in Sufis

Intisar Khalil Hasan Ali

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 523-544

It is a common fact that “Al-Thiker” is an emotional state in which those who fear God feel the pleasure of spiritual rapprochement to the all living creator and which is a state where a glim of guidance light rises on their hearts to direct them to the straight – forward path.
This paper deals with many subjects that are related to “Al-Thiker” in general and to the "mystic Al – Thiker" in particular.
The Linguistic and terminological origin of the word “Al-Thiker” is the best beginning that is found while searching for the “Al-Thiker” subject. Then the ways, types, lexes, features and benefits of “Al-Thiker” are tackled.
“Al-Thiker” is the behaviour of man in which one avoids inattention, prevents oneself towards good deeds by the complete follow of the last prophet whose behaviour was directed by the Quran.
Generally, “Al-Thiker” which includes the name of God, contemplation, prayer, reading the Quran and supplication, is the base of the mystic behaviour. The most common meanings of “Al-Thiker” are mentioning the name of God and contemplation.
“Al-Thiker” may be either secretly or publicly.

The Ecological Disorder Caused by The Demographic Diversification in Mosul City

Salah H. Al-Janabi; Mohammed Sh. Al-Rahbi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 53, Pages 545-560

The demographic diversification is a distinguished character in the great cities. Vertically, the diversification dimensions lie in the expansion of the gap between the top and base of the economic pyramid. Horizontally, the diversification is caused by the ethnic, religious and tribal differences. The research will not deal with the first aspect, but it will be satisfied in dealing with the second one only, as an applied on Mosul city, which is considered as a population polarization center of the hinterland areas, which is distinguished by diversification in the second aspect.
The diversification character is not considered as an urban problem, when the urban administrative system is rigorous. But it seems to be a real problem, when the city loses the executive venaration, then, population of the hinterland areas who settle inside the city, has become a fifth battlion for the start off area. The research tackles by analysis the diversity justifications, and the reactions which reflect on the urban life in Mosul city.