ISSN: 0378-2867

Volume 39, Issue 54

Volume 39, Issue 54, Summer 2009, Page 1-780

Al-Dhuha Sura: A Phonetic Study

Azza A. Ahmed; Rafi; A. Mallo

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 1-14

This study analyses Al-Dhuha (forenoon/ morning) sura through an analysis of the number of its verses, words, and syllables. The study uncovers a connection between the time of its descent, and the reason behind it. There is an implicit allusion in this sura to the exact time as to when the revelation to the Prophet will cease. The total number of syllables in this sura, 114, coincide with the total number of suras of the Qur'an. It is also concluded the descent of inspiration. The fact that Al-Dhuha is the only sura in the Qur’an with this number of syllables. This confirms the connection referred to above.
51.7% of the syllables in this sura are short open syllables, which alludes to the perseverance of the descent of inspiration. As for the number of words, they are forty words. It could be interpreted to match either the age of the Prophet (PBUH) at the time when he was chosen as Allah's Messenger; or the number of days when the inspiration ceased to descend.
Al-Dhuha has eleven verses, which is also suggestive. This number matches the order of descent of this sura among the other suras of the Qur’an; i.e. it was the eleventh in the succession of the suras revealed to the Prophet.

A Rhetorical Study

Ahmad Fathi Ramadan; Adnan A. Al-Asaad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 15-44

Al-Ihtiras is an art among the rhetorical digressive arts usually found in Arabic poetry and the Glorious Quran in particular. The rhetoricians usually classify Al-Ihtiras into two types according to its position in speech. The first occurs in the medial position and the second in the final position.
The present study classifies Al-Ihtiras in terms of meaning into four types: Oppositive Ihtiras, Complementary Ihtiras, Ironic Ihtiras and Supletive Ihtiras.
The main function of Al-Ihtiras is to direct the path of meaning avoiding anything that may lead to misinterpretation. The Quranic Ihtiras directs the meaning to the exact meaning without leaving a room for misinterpretation. Furthermore, Al-Ihtiras deepens the meaning and increases its emphasis and clarity.

Letters of Apodosis in Arabic: Agreed upon and Disagreed: Descriptive Study

Nawfal A. Majid; Firas A. Abdul-Qadir

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 45-71

The study of exclaims has acquired a great deal of linguists' care in the past and in present especially exclaims that have meanings for there great importance in understanding a large number of styles.
We found that (response particles) alone is good and enough for a separate research. In addition to the fact that linguists and grammarians are in agreement that some of these exclaims are specific for response. They also disagree with the fact that some other particles fit response and other aims. So, our research was entitled (agreement and disagreement upon response exclaims in Arabic – descriptive study). On that basis, we divided our research in two topics: the first was entitled with (What is agreed upon response exclaims) and it contained the following letters: (أجل / إي / بجل / بلى / لا / نعم). The second was entitled with (What is disagreed upon response exclaims) and it included the letters: (إن / جلل / جير/ كلا ).

Al-Addyyat Sura: Segmental Study

Hilal Ali Mahmood

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 73-96

The present study deals with analyzing the sound segments structure of Al-Addyyat Verses in Quran. The study shows two matters: the first is that sound segment structure is considered as a case belongs to Arabic and the second is an importance of study of the sound structure in order to know the text meaning to find the indirect meaning deeply. the Quranic verses are selected to show two mentioned the matters in order to obtain good results in this study.

Al-'Awl in the Law of Descent and Distribution: (Juristic Study)

Thafir Khuther Sulaiman

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 122-144

Allah created man and organized his life by divine laws, to mention but one of these laws is the law of descent and distribution to distribute the legacy among the heirs justly and wisdomly. The science governs the dividing of legacy is Farāidh, the branches of this science are agreed by most scientists, with little differences about certain issues. Al-'Awl is one of these subjects that is debatable among the jurists, this difference was the basis of another difference about the dividing of the legacy on its heirs. The current research adopts this subject to be its problem and explained the difference regarding this problem suggesting the most overwhelming opinion among the Islamic jurists and scholars.

لمّا ومواضع استخدامها في القرآن الكريم

Haydar Mahmood Abdul-Razaq

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 145-164

The research supposes that the Glorious Qura'an is miraculous in which the use of the forms, expressions، words and letters came according to a special order according to the context of situation.
Accordingly، the researcher studies the adverb (لمّا) with its different forms of "disproof", "apocopate" and the "conditional adverbial" which means (إلا) in its context of situations and how to use it, the meanings that carries as well as the frequency of its occurrence.
The number of the suras in which the adverb (لمّا) occurred in the Glorious Qura'an in all its types is 47 suras in 162 contexts of situations, eight of them as the apocopate (لمّا) which precede the present tense verb, three of them mean (إلا) the rest 151 ones are the conditional adverbial (لمّا) which is the frequent use in the Glorious Qura'an when the contexts is about the Prophets (peace be upon them) when they struggled to reveal the message of Islam by discussing and debating with their opponents.
On the other hand, the suras which include the worships as the prayers, fast, charity, pilgrimage, legislations as marriage, divorce and heritage no occurrence of (لمّا) was noticed. The results of this might be seen in what follows.
I hope that this research will be a fruitful work for me and a supply in the balance of my benefactions in the Hereafter.

Segmental Order and Its Semantic Effect in the Qur’anic Recitation

Muhammed Ismaeel Muhammed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 165-190

This study aims at describing the segmental order in the Quranic recitations especially it is considered as the original phonetic source that protect on the phonetic performance as received from the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). The study falls into three sections. In the first section, the study examined the segmental shapes which can be happened in the Quranic recitation and clarified what is predominant and rare. It also studies the segmental order of the Quranic recitation and have no existence in Arab's talk (prose and poetry). It renamed these segmental to match with the number of sounds in each segmental. In the second section, the study studies the impression of the Quranic recitations in the segmental order because of its trace in forming it. In the third section, the study delves into the indication impression of the segmental order in the Quranic recitation throughout the emphasis, centers and so on.

The Strategy of Rhyme Building in Free Verse Ahmed Shawqi’s Poem of Nahj El-Burda as an Example

Jasim Muhammed Jasim

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 191-208

The paper aims at uncovering the strategies of rhyme building in the free verse in general and the poem of Nahj
El-Burda in particular. It proceeds in two axes: The first provides a theoretical background. It tackles rhyme depending
on the linguistic data of the base قفا (Qifa) to uncover it terminologically and traces its realization in the example under discussion. In the second axes, however, the paper applies the results of the theoretical background on the poem of Nahj
El-Burda to end up with set of strategies the poem shares with other free verse poems and can be generalized to the whole strategy of rhyme building in the free verse.

Mu’āwiya Bin Abi Sufian’s Stance from the Political Developments in the Rashidi Period

Salim Abd Ali; Mahmood Ghanim Mohammed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 236-268

The present study deals with Mu’āwiya’s stance, the governor of Syria, the Caliph later on, from the political developments prior the murder of the Caliph Ottman. It also deals with the times and days of sedition that led to martyrdom of the Caliph Ottman (may Allah be pleased with him). Similarly, the study will also tackles with Mu’āwiya’s viewpoints in solving the troubles happened at those hard days. In those days many lives were lost, many fighting fronts were appeared.
He was preferring to approach the peaceful solution rather than other solution that might be in using force. Similarly, he respected other’s views in those troubled days. The study also will review the opinions that were given by Mu’āwiya’s opponents and how he replied to them.
Moreover, the study will give the views that are given by Islamic and Arab scholars concerning what happened between Mu’āwiya and Ali bin Abi Talib (May Allah be please with them), and what happen in Siffeen. Then, the
study will mention the referee issue. Likewise, the study reviews Mu’āwiya respect towards the Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib and how he cried when he heard about his death (40A.H./ 669A.D.). On the other hand, we find how the Caliph Ali regretted for what happened preferring that he could have died before experiencing those troubles. This study relies on the latest books and articles in the Islamic history, jurists’ views, and the modern views of the historians in order to arrive at the real image of the real situation and what was Mu’āwiya’s stance.

Islamic Liberation of Al-Hira in 12A.H./633A.D.

Salih Ramadhan Hasan

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 269-286

This research is a second part of the study which deals with the subject of Khalid Ibn Al-Walled leader and the Islamic liberation operations in Iraq 12A.H/633A.D.
This part talks specially about the details of the liberation operation of Al-Hira and surrounding areas and the plans made by Khalid which enabled his forces to capture the city in short time and with few losses.
To achieve his aim, he captured the Persian garrisons and castles and defeated their forces. This action resulted in the escape of the Persian ruler of Al-Hira with his army to avoid confronting with the Islamic forces who entered the city.
This research also sheds light on the manner by which Khalid– who had high intelligence and wisdom – implemented his plans relating to treatment should be made with the local rulers and people of Al-Hira.
The study also shows mercy and force to his defeated enemies till he had conquered the city peacefully. the reconciliation agreement included fair conditions, which could be considered as a human document for the relationship between the victor and defeater. It became as example followed by many of Sawad Al-Iraq rulers and their princes who concluded reconciliation agreement and accepted the Islamic supremacy. Khalid made many of administrative and security procedures to ensure the security and stability state in the freed territories and to maintain the life of people and their properties and their rights.

Monotheism in Al-Imam Al-Kelany Thought (471-561A.H. / 1078-1166A.D.)

Abdul-Qadir Ahmed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 287-309

This research deals with monotheism doctrine as viewed by Al-Imam Al-Kelany. Monotheism to him is not just a word which compares to the singleness of ALLAH (The Almighty). Yet it is rather a comprehensive monotheism that contains all the aspects of life, social, economic, religious and scientific. It is a practical approach of Allah teachings to liberate human beings from all slavery and polytheism. The Shaik has fought with monotheism belief all kinds of polytheism and infidelities idolater that has been spread in society like flames in crashes. These acts made the society turning to be an empty society without life or soul, so the monotheism has weekend and so does the loyalty in actions, worship, intends and directions. There are some who worship rulers, powerful men, rich people as they think they give them money and there are some others who worship life, money, glory, fame and social position. Similarly, there are some people who are self-denying, ignorant dissimulate people, the Shaik tells them that most of them worship created figures. There are who prefer worshiping money, son and life on worshiping Allah and his Prophet (PBUH). Some people complain to other than Allah when the fate and misfortune are befalling on him. Some are dissimulating people in their work and worshipness. Likewise, some worship his desire and passions, and seek knowledge for other than Allah but for money or fame. All those who approach divinity other than Allah makes them polytheist in their acts or sayings.
That’s how the Shaik Al-Kelany fought those gods and masters and waked up human being from its sleep and brought them back to monotheism belief and its pureness. He toke them out from darkness to brightness.

Natural Phenomena and Disasters in Andalus and Their Impact on Society during the Ommiad Period (138-422A.H. / 755-1030A.D.)

al Yaseen Mustafa; Khaz

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 310-334

This paper aims at studying natural phenomena and disasters in Andalus and their impact on society in particular the negative ones like poverty and shortage of food during the Ommaid period. This condition so greatly affected on the society that it leads forced a people to die because of shortage of food and diseases.
Another aim is to study earthquakes and the unusual movement of plants which highly frightened people that it remained in the memory of historians.

Historical Documentation in Germany from Renaissance to Late Nineteenth Century

Ayad Ali Yassin

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 336-351

The historical documentation in Germany is an important issue since it presents an early image of the documentation of the political, economic and social aspects of the human history. The researcher deals with this topic in an insightful way.
The importance of this topic stems from the German thinking vigilance in modern times and their great efforts in studying the old German heritage and its emphasis on the human value in accordance with the modern German humanitarian views.
During the period between the Renaissance and the late Nineteenth century, the German historians were well-known for their critical and scrutinizing methods in studying historical documents and checking it against the early sources to show its value and how much they can rely on it in understanding the past events. History certainly is the written experience of the human race and the Germans managed to benefit from this experience across history in all aspects of knowledge.

Police in Andalus 138-366A.H./756-976A.D.

Hadya Mohammed Hameed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 352-376

The role of police is vital since it is one of those important entities in both ancient and modern times. It is responsible for keeping security and punishing criminals. This was the situation in Andalus. The police then had received great attention and had a distinguished position as the most famous and experienced men had occupied its various position. This role had been increased when the police were subdivided into three types: higher, middle and lower. The research has treated these types in details especially the responsibilities, and authorities. In addition, a survey of those who became police heads in Andalus (spam).

Historical Trends in Writing University Dissertations in History Dept. (Modern and Current History as a Model)

Mahmood S. Sa; eed

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 377-398

This research has been made to show the scientific achievement of the department of history representing by university theses especially of the department of history about modern and contemporary history.
This research is clarifying that theses achieved by college of arts contributing in consolidating the cultural awareness, establishing civilization values in society. Theses in the field of recent history and contemporary one are written to contribute in clearing the view of the recent history which has became necessary to understand the regional and global transformations. So, this research has made an illustrative attempt to show the nature of trends of historical writings for such theses according to illustrative results collecting by the scholar to reveal important and basic sides in historical writing especially about: contents of historical writing and its public sides, and means used in writing. As a result for all of this we will go to the original idea about the extent of the success of these studies to show the historical facts and its response to the developments happening here in Iraq.

Sunoosi Zawya (Teaching Mosque): Its Establishment and Economic Role (1841-1911)

Muhammed Ali Afeen

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 399-419

The present study sheds light on one of the reforming movements in Arab Homeland. Some reformative movements which made reforms of the conditions of Moslems and the education of Moslem generations on sound bases their optimal goal appeared recently. This objective became their main slogan especially after the Islamic World underwent fierce attacks by the western military and cultural challenges at the end of the 18th century A.D. Those attacks took different shapes the most important of which was the crusades which began to spread Christianity in the Islamic World due to the worsening Ottoman administration which negatively affected the conditions of the Islamic society. Those events led to the emergence of some reformers who championed the reformation movements in the different parts of the Islamic World including Africa. Among those was the Sunoosi movement which managed to establish a special position for itself thanks to its good organization in the economic field, and also its declaration as an emirate independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1913A.D. This excellent organization can be attributed to the Sunoosi Zawya (teaching mosque) which functioned as governmental institutions managing people’s affairs in the social, economic and religious fields.

Sociology of Occupation

Khalil M. Al-Khalidy

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 420-432

The research try to study the social, economic and political impact which the occupation has left on society. The study is done through new science, aims at reaching at what so called Sociology of Occupation. It seeks to study social, psychological and economical problems which have brought by American occupation of Iraq.

Physician between Social Role and Professional Behaviour: A Social Analytical Study

Abdul-Fatah Muhammed Fathi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 433-456

The medicine in its wide meaning concerning with health problems and disease. There is a noticed concern by medical centers especially in the developed countries, due to the social changes and technology progress in every side of life which affected the medicine and Physicians in its relation to the diseases and social values. The importance of this research that is studying a keen field in medicine and medical sociology which is the roles conflicting for physicians, between their social role and professional behaviour. Some people believe that physicians are a mistakable. The research also shows that the types of disease nowadays are not the same, which appeared 50 years ago, and physicians are facing a big challenge, due to the impact of the cultural development, as far as diseases and social life are concerned.
This research conatins five chapters, the first one is the importance and scope of research, the second chapter is regarding the social role in term of sociology and social psychology mean. Chapter three explains the medico-social perspective of health and disease. The fourth chapter studies the relation between physician and patients. Finally, chapter five concentrates on the physicians roles conflict.

Superstitious Beliefs among University Students

Anwar Kasim Yahya

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 457-482

The present work attempts to give a general view of the superstitious beliefs that are common among university students. It also tries to reveal the significant differences in accepting these superstitions among students according to the variables of sex, academic specification, and social status. 259 male and female students were chosen randomly from four scientific and humanity colleges. A special device is set for the purpose which included 42 items after it was revised by experts in education, psychology, and sociology to verify it and state its stability which is (0.91). The results of this work singled out certain items which represented the superstitious beliefs among the students under study. It is also noticed that such beliefs came low which estimated at (%0.4-%19.1). The results also showed some differences in accepting these beliefs according to the variables of sex: in favour of females and the variable of stage or class in favour of first year students and that of the social status in favour of married students. There are no differences according to academic specification. Finally the work came out with some suggestions and recommendations.

Sociological Terms in Mosuli Proverbs

Reem Ayoub Muhammad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 483-504

The Arabic proverbs have a cultural content that refers to what the Arab mentality of thinking, honesty in experiencing and originality in expressing. They also constitute a huge folk material as they include of live and true imagination of the Arabian environments. They give live imagery of the nature as equally have clear and hidden phenomenon being brought out from clear and undeceiving nature.
This research includes an introduction and five parts, and then a conclusion. Concerning the first subject, it includes the methodological frame of the research which is the problem, its aims, and its methodology. The second part is the terminologies concerning the social concepts that concern the social behaviour. The third section is the terminologies concerning the economical concepts. The fourth one is the scientific terminologies concerning the behavioural concepts. While the last one is the economical terminologies concerning the belief concept and finally there is a conclusion includes the achievement of the aim of the researcher of the possibility of coincidence of the folk proverb in some aspects under the concepts of the scientific terminologies and inclusion of the folk proverbs under various social and scientific terminologies by considering it as a reflective imagery for the social life
in all its aspects taken from the reality. Sociological terminologies can also been considered as terminologies that spring from reality that they appeared in. Besides, the scientific terminology stems from the social reality but it does not quite useless of ideal thoughts that aim to achieve whatever man desires. Also the folk proverb shows what the ideal behaviour in the society through the advices that presents to its individuals.

Exception in the Akkadian Language (A Comparative Study)

Zuhayr Dh. S. Al-Rifaa

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 507-530

Exception is one of the significant topics that haven't been tackled in the studies and papers written on Akkadian language as far as the scholar knows. The present study aims at studying the topic of exception with its kinds. There are many types of exception like: the exception made void (of government). Disjunctive exception, or that exception in which the thing excepted is joined to, or of the same kind as, the general term…. etc. that will be tackled in what follows. Similarly, the study also aims at explaining the similarities and differences between exception in the Akkadian language and its counterpart in Arabic.
Moreover, it investigates and analyses some particles that were used in the Akkadian and comparing them their counterparts in the family of the Arabite language to which the Akkadian language belongs.

Names of Cities and Geographical Sites Similar in Pronunciation and Different in Position in the Cuneiform Texts

Amir Abdullah Al-Jumaili

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 531-568

Study the names of cities is of a great importance for those researchers specializing in the field of historical geography. This importance is clear through its role in detaining the geographical theatre of many historical facts and events as well as determing the correct and true course of the caravans stations, campaigns and travels across historical periods.
This research considers and deals with significant phenomenon in this filed that is the similarity of names of cities included in the cuneiform texts with the difference of their geographical sites in the near east, because many of the researchers are in a case of an illusion and mixture to assign the site of the considered city because they do not realize that the names of cities are same names like those of people know that can be given to more than one.
Here, the researcher has to take the responsibility of determing the site of the considered city in the study.

Sustenance in the Ancient Babylonian Period

Muhammad A. Al-Bakri

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 569-592

The present study represents a trial for studying a social effective element in Babylonian life particularly the Babylonian family. It is a completion of many studies that were written on this significant social aspect of Babylonian life. Thanks to many cuneiform texts like letters and published contracts that were rendered by translators along with the Babylonian laws like Hammurabi Code. These all concern our subject i.e. “Sustenance” in many Judicial articles. During our reading about this subject that “Sustenance” includes in the first place the family members like sons and parents let alone one’s wife. The texts show that the bread winner have had the responsibility to give support and sustenance to the people under his custody. In the case of being in shortage, he would incur judicial consequences.

The Role of Islamic Painting in Reflecting the Cultural Reality of the Islamic Society

Mohammed Kh. Mahmood

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 593-612

Islamic paintings represent the reflecting mirror of the dominant social and cultural aspects in Arab Islamic society with its precise particulars. The study aims at investigating the Islamic ruling concerning the paintings. It reviews this ruling through citing the Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions (Hadiths), then we will give our opinion as far as the paintings are concerned. Islamic painting has many schools and trends. One of these paintings was Al-Hariri rations which were drawn by Al-Wasiti anecdotes. In these anecdotes we notice many social aspects like Eid processions and Islamic caliphate sessions…etc.
The last part of the study concentrates on the cultural aspects that were documented graphically from the books and libraries. Many figures appeared in this field.

Classroom Management Techniques of Secondary School Teachers in the Center of Nenavah Governorate

Mohammed Ali Abbas

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 39, Issue 54, Pages 633-654

The purpose of this study is to fine the classroom management methods of secondary school teachers at the center of Ninevah Governorate. Similarly to find if there is any significant differences in the classroom management styles of teachers according to sex variable.
The sample of this study consists of (91) teachers, (39) of them were males, while (52) of them were females. This research adopted Shame's scale (1989) to identify The means of the classroom management after realizing criteria of its validity and reliability.
Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test were used as statistical means. After analyzing 91 questionnaire, the results showed that (69.23%) of teachers used democratic style in classroom management, while (30. 77%) of teachers used autocratic style, while Laissez-faire style was not used.
Also, the results showed that there are statistical significance differences between male and female teachers in the democratic style for the sake of the male teachers and there are no statistical significant differences in the use of the autocratic style.