ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 2867-0378

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2506-2664

Volume 38, Issue 50

Volume 38, Issue 50, Spring 2008, Page 1-690

Blending in the Akkadian Language "A Comparative Study"

eed Al-Rifaa; Zuhair Dh. Sa

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 1-18

Blending is regarded one of the significat topic in the field of linguistic studies. It is defined by the linguist as a reduction in words and phrases, i.e. it is involving the fusion of two target words for example Interpol for linternational polices. Al-Khlil bin Ahammed Al-Farahidi is the first Arab linguist who called for blending. In this paper we shall shed some light on this linguistic aspect. Similarly, we shall show the similarity between Arabic and Akkadian languages as far as blending is concerned. The study has come up with the concluding that there common characteristics between the two languages. This may support our view that blending is an ancient aspect in the arabised languages.

Assyrian Conflict with Keldan Tribes in Babylon Country

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 19-50

The current paper studies the relations between Assyrian and the keldan tribes in the south of Babylon with the first Millinieum B.C In which one may find the name of Keldo Country that once mentioned in the annals of the Assyrian King Assur-nasir-apli 883-859 B.C.
His son, Sulmann-asared 858-824 B.C mentioned the tribes names that he fought then with the period 851-850 B.C from which he received the Sulmann-asared's achievements were eternally inscripted on the block oblisk and the gates of Balawat His successors proceeded in sending military campaigns to Babylon from which they received various tributes including minerals, precious stones and animals.
Moreover, the king Tukulti-apil-esarra 745-727 B.C fought with Keldan tribes anew in 731 B.C and destroyed their towns. In the last years of his term he ascended on the Babylonian throne.
As soon as Sarru-ken became a king 721-705 B.C he resisted the keldan insurgency and Ilam tribes, thus he entered Babylon again in 708 B.C. His son Sin-ahhi-eriba 704-681 B.C Followed his father's suit toward the Ilam-Keldan alliamce. He fought the keldan tribes sent military forces to Ilam and destroyed their country .
His successor, the king Assur-ahi-iddin 680-669 B.C followed an other approach different from his father toward Babylon after he defeated some insurgencies.
Similarly, the king Assur-bani-apil 668-626 B.C defeated the insurgency led by Samas-sum-ukin afterward he became the King of Babylon named as Kandalo. As soon as the Assyrian king died Nabe-Blaser exploited the chance and declared himself as a king on Babylon and made a coalition with Ki-Ehser Again the Assyrian state taken down in 612 B.C.

Sociology of Knowledge upon Ali Al-Wardi

Shafeek I. Al-S; lih

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 51-82

It is possible to say that Al-Wardi did not write in Sociology of knowledge, as theoretical science, but he uses it as method of research as associated with his wide books in one hand, and focused in searching partially on sociology of knowledge on other hand.
The sociology of knowledge constitutes two parts as far as Al-Wardi is concerned.
1- Part one regards components of sociology of knowledge which include some topics connected with the theoretical subjects, like social thought, the thought frame , and methodology.
2- Part two: the character is a topic of sociology of knowledge, and theoretical topics , but it is realistic and empirical on the social life like parapsychology of unconsciousness, the social knowledge , and social reality.

Social and Economical Burdens on Families Arising out of Cellular Phone: A Field Study in the city of Mosul

Faeez Mohammad Dawood

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 83-110

This study tackles the economical and social burdens arising out of the mobile's multiplicity. The study aims at highlighting the most significant burdens which may affect the family, weather such effects were positive or negative.
The samples of Study consists of (60) families. Furthermore, the researcher adopted the social survey approach depending on a random sample. In addition to the questionnaire utilized as a tool for collecting data, the paper concluded that the mobile could possibly have both negative and positive effects as it is illustrated in the paper results.

Juvenile Delinquency after U.S Invasion of Iraq in 2003 Field Study: Mosul City as an Examples

Ahmad Yousif Ahmad

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 111-146

Misdemeanor is a phenomenon that Iraqi society suffers from due to the occupation .It is an obvious problem just like the causes which are different in their effect in different societies that may lead unanimously or singly to different Misdemeanor conducts. Misdemeanor is a major problem that human societies undergo because it results in psychological and social effects on the minor person. It leaves negative dangerous effects in society like increasing criminal acts, robbery, drugdealing, corruption, and moral corruptions. Wars and crises are among the factors that cause Misdemeanor. The minor person, who is raised up in a fearful and scary society in which killing, terror and feeling unsecure, tends to be one of two things: he either tends to feer and becomes imbalanced in personality plus being unconcerned with correcting his mistakes to avoid falling in problems or he is raised up violently or naughtily. So, he doesn’t participate in developing his society positively. Today in Iraq after war, Misdemeanor began to appear noticeably because of the circumstances that encircled Iraqi society. Firstly the absence of government al authority, namely, police and security. This leuds to chaos which extended to all Iraqi cities . The absence of anthority and not arresting the outlaws encouraged others to begin stealing and premeditated killing. This resulted in increasing criminal phenomena in Iraqi society and in appearing new conducts of crimes that were never happened before.

Social Implications of Gift (A Field Study in Mosul)

Amira Wahid Khatab

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 147-187

Gift is a message with many social implications. It maintains and deepens social ties among friends and relations. It is a phenomenon with many tokens and social implications on the various levels in the western and eastern communities from the past up to the present day. It strengthens social and economic ties among individuals. This paper is analytical, normative, and anthropological study. It follows the approach of social survey by collecting samples.
The study has come up with the following results:

1. Gift is a positive phenomenon 99%. It deepens love among
individual and expresses care with the person to whom the gift is
presented. It strengthens social contact and the spirit of help
among relatives. .
2. As an interested social custom, gift amounted to 52%, while its amount estimated at 48% among those who motivated by the Prophet (PBUH) urging them on keeping gifts exchange.
3. Gift is a type of economic help for those who need it in occasions like marriage. Hence it plays an important economic role.

Al-Ma’moon's Education (the Abbaside Caliph) and It's Effect on his Internal and External Policy

Muafak Salim Noory

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 179-202

This research is based on showing the personality of Al-Ma’moon’s which was characteriseal by education and acquiring more knowledge affecting his internal and external policy. At early of his age, Al-Ma’moon had been taught religion. This lasted for many years. Then he studied scholastic theology until Al-Mu'ta/ila succeeded to conivince him to accept their policy and doctrine. Al-Ma’moon studied pure scientific subjects like, engineering, philosophy and logic. He paid homage to the eighth Imam of Al-Shiites to rule the country after him. This shows the effect of Al-Mu’tazila on the personality of Al-Ma’moon they prefer Ali Mahamuod’s cosin on other Prophet’s companies.
They found that he was the only one to rule after the prophet (Mohmmad). AL-Ma'moon had followed the doctrine of Mu'tazila (the problem of creating Qura'n). AL-Ma’moon was peaceful in his religious trends and ideas.
On the other side, his external policy, Al-Ma’moon declared that he was ready to sign a long-term treaty with the Byzantiums provided that the emperor should send (Lio) the mathematician scientists to Baghdad to lecture there but this was not achieved because the imperor refused. AL-Ma'moon position was no more than a reflection of his desire to study science and knowledge.

Mosul Society in the 4th Century A.H./10th A.D. in the Poetry of Al-Serry Al-Raffā'

Abd Al-Jabbar Hamed

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 203-236

The paper aims at studying the poetry of Al-Serry Al-Raffa' as a study of Mosul nature and beauty and its impact on society. It also studies the Arabic tribes who lived in Mosul and to show their occupations at that time. In addition to this, it tries to shed light on their foods and drinks. It oive a description of their social development as places, baths, waterwheels and then to mention their wars, army and weapons.
Al-Serry Al-Raffa'' is Abu Hassan Al-Kindi Al-Raffa' Al-Mosully. He is one pf Mosul poets in 4A..H./10AD. He used to mend clothes and embroider them. He praised Mosul kings like Nasir Al-Dawla Al-Hamdani and later Saif Al-Dawla Al-Hamdani in Aleppo. He died in (362A..H. /972A .D.).

Taymouric-Mamluki Relations after Taymour Lang

Alaa; M. Qad

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 258-258

The current paper concentrates on the relation between Taymouric and Al-Mamamlik states in Egypt and Bilad Al-Sham (Syria) after the death of Taymour Lang .
This relation reflects a political conflict to occupy areas in the East of Anatolia and the Euphrates, Jazera. It also tackles the role of the local powers and the consequences that arose after the demand of Shahrikh, the Taymouric king from the Mamluki Sultan to be responsible of Al-Kala Cover "Cuswa". That demand was about to cause an invasion of Bilad-Al-Sham. But the cceptance of "Chikmuk" for Shahrilkh demand contributed to make their relation normal.

The Impact of the Isfarayeen Town Scholars on the Ideological Movement during the 4th & the 5th Centuries

Abd Al-Kadir Ahmad

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 259-286

Isfarayeen town had participated significantly in supporting the scientific movement in the Islamic homeland through its scholars' achievements in various fields of knowledge; law, linguistics.
Hadith, interpretation jurisprudence and theology.
The scholars of this town have studied linguistic, religious and other sciences. Some of them have left their homes for its sake to several Islamic towns seeking knowledge. They were the most famous scholars and were able to acquire knowledge. Some of them became famous in these sciences. They started to teach their students in order to fulfill their splendid scientific mission and accomplish scientific and civilization communication among Islamic nation. Thus that nation which was known with a large number of eminent scholars and the great benefit they offered for humanity.

Prostatitis in Ancient Iraq in the light of the Cuneiform Texts

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 287-300

The prosperity of ancient Iraq was not only confined to intellectual and literary aspects, but also it includes many branches of knowledge. Among these branches there was well-known discipline, that is disease diagnosis. In this paper we try to give a clear-cut picture about a disease scientifically named (prostatitis). We try to shed lights on this disease given that this is an internal disease. Similarly, we investrgate the ways where by this disease was eured. The cuneiform texts is our main source, in which one may find many disease in addition to their remedies.

The Most Important Royal Symbols in Ancient Iraq

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 301-326

Mohammad Hamza Al-Ta'ee (*)
It was widely held by Mesopotamian people that royalty is in the heaven. However, it was descended down to the earth. This kingship is embodied by ancient Iraqis by something called "royal symbols" like: crowns, maces, clubs and measuring tape. These are divine sacred symbols that connect between gods and human beings. These symbols were used by Iraqi king to authenticate their authority and power. Similarly to give their authority sacred and divine nature to keep people's loyalty toward themselves. These symbols were received by every king in his crowning party which representing a symbol of strength and authority. So that the king will occupy a distinguished place among the gods and people. Actually these symbols added something of grandeur and respect. At the same time they showed king's prestige and confirmed their justice and power.

The Economical and Residential Signs of Settling Diseases during the Early Islamic Ages

Mohanad Nafa Al-Mukhtar

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 327-348

This search is a study of residential and settling diseases like malaria, bilharziasis, fever, T.B and leprosy. It aims at standing on its economical and residential traces through studying of many cities and districts of Islamic states. They are studied by many historical and geographical references and other authorities. It also attempts the attempting to know the factors which helped behind spreading of these diseases. It is to be geographical factors noted that came at the leading position of the sefactors factors. Cause The geographical environment plays a role in existing these diseases. Similarly the weather and its changes time and its change.within the seasons Changer in temperatures, moisture and winds. Partrcularly could be a logical reasons.

In addition to another factors like carelessnes in the sanitary supplements especially the system of draining and water canals and internal draining, beside to the floods that happened. The refore, great areas summarize them were overflown with water .
This paper has come up with important results and we can in the following points:
1. Diseases have great effect in the life of people and in the economical affairs for these societies because they have continuous effect.
2. Huge statistical in figures Mortality were recoededin the year which the diseases became active.
3. Reduction in production in the effected areas by these diseases, and weakening the abilities of those who infected by this disease to work and produce.
4. Many diseases have great impact on agriculture and its expanision in especially malaria and bilharziasis.
5. leaving planting many kinds of crops because its connection with many insects which caused disease, like rise planting and its connection with existence of bilharziasis worm which causes the disease.
6. Effectting on the averages of morbidity and residential growing.

Ruling of Transient Addittions

Mohy al-Deen Tawfeek

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 349-368

This research deals with a general linguistic rule indicating that any emergent addition to a word or a sentence requires a change in the root of that word or sentence, and this change may in the diacritical marks, or in the ellipsis, or in the arrangement of the sentence elements.
Arab linguists assume that this change is due to phonological, morphological, or grammatical causes; and they express this by many old and recent terms. As a conclusion, we have found that this change is not restricted only to the phonological, morphological, or grammatical levels, but it also occurs at the semantic level. The Arabic lexicon is full of examples which prove this.

Semantic Studies in Al–Azhari's Al-Zaher


اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 369-390

This research sheds light on the personality of Al–Azhari as a great linguist through his well known dictionary better known as “Ambiguous words used by Imam Al-Shāfi’i”. It tackles the semantic, textual. Similarly it studies the relation between the texts and the words.

Delving into A Book Named “Al-Muthākara in Poets’ Surnames: An Assessment

Abdullah M. Al-Mula

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 391-418

This study investigates a book named (Al-Muthākara lit means (studying) in Poets’ surnames written by Majdudeen Al-Nishābi (died 656 A.H.). In this book appears the scientific abalitres of Majdudeen Al-Nishābi as a thinker, a historian, a man of letters, a poet, a critic and as a linguist. He who has deeply rooted knowledge in all fields of interests that mentioned earlier.
He brought up in two areas in Erbil and Baghdad of which he extended his thoughts, knowledge and education. In addition to review his journeys that help him in broadening his horizons. So he was one of the prominent, in the century A.H.

Ibn Al-Muneer Arguements againt Al-Zamakhshari in Qurānic Recitations

Talal Yahya

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 419-440

This paper entitled "The Answers of Ibn Ul–Muneer to AL–Zamakhshari on the variation in the recitations of the Glorious Qur'an". It attempts to uncover Ibn Ul–Muneer's view of this variation though the objections he raised against Al – Zamkhshari's attitude as far as Qurānic recitations are concerned..
Ibn Ul-Muneer's view has two axes: first, variation is one of the essential bases on which grammatical rules should be established since it is the standard of grammar not the opposite. Secondly, the search for the linguistic basis for this variation through looking into correct Arabic dialects.

Narrative Elements in A-Jabal Poem

r Ahmmad Al-Saff; sma Mahfood

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 475-494

“Iben–Khafāja” is an Andules poet. He died in 533 A.H. He was well-minded in text structuring (whether poem or novel). In this poem (i.e. Al-Jabal lit means the mountain) the writer impersonates two personalities with high degree of semantic and artistic tension. These two personalities are highly interrelated. After scrutinizing them, it becomes evident that it is one personality Narration play its role in introducing this unified personality. The poetic language also plays its role depending on the poetic shape which indudes meter and rhyme. Similarly, it depends on the narrative performance. spaciotemperal dimensions also have a role as they are narrative space that frames the elements of the poem as whole. All of these were in coherent structure with unity of subject systemized in extensive and abstracted language in which both poetry and short story are involved.

Information Storage and Its Retrieval in English and Arabic

Ph.D; Nazar M.A.Qassim

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 495-524

The paper shows that the systems and tools of information storage and retrieval are built on the basis of the European languages especially English. The criteria to measure their efficiency are put accordingly. Most of these systems and tools were translated into Arabic with rare consideration of the characteristics of the Arabic language and its vocabulary resulting into carrying the characteristics of English on Arabic ones despite the great differences between them. The paper discusses the classification of languages into natural (free and controlled) and artificial. It shows the use of free and controlled languages in information storage and retrieval and the problems they face beside presenting their strong and weak points. It makes a comparison between Arabic and English to show their characteristics with emphasis on Arabic in particular. It give a representation and standardization in the various fields of morphology, syntax, phonology and semantics which are very useful in representing the concepts precisely and clearly. It is recommended that these characteristics are used to surpass the weak points of English vocabulary translated into Arabic. It also recommends that the local colloquial Arabic vocabulary should be avoided to keep the unity of Arabic thought and to make Arabic information storage and retrieval operations useful throughout the Arab Homeland.

Designing and Constructing a Database for a Scientific Journal by a Ready Made Computerized System

Amaar Abd Al-lteef

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 50, الصفحة 525-556

The study presents the concept of Database, its characteristics, the factors of its success , its files and the available type of software for its design and structure. The second edition of CDS/ISIS (WINISIS),as one of the system used in designing and constructing Database for documentary purposes, is presented in addition to the most important reasons that qualify it to be used in Arabic Libraries . The study also covers the practical steps to design and construct Databases. A Database was designed for a journal comprising 18 fields covering the different types of bibliographical data of each research paper and journal. Researches can be retrieved via their Arabic and English title, author/s , keywords, subject field of the journal, its volume and issue and the name/s of the referees. The Database was specially designed to help the editorial boards of journals in routine clerical work and storing the bibliographical data related to the published researches in that journal with the possibility of retrieving the English and Arabic abstracts . The study included (3) tables and (10) figures.