ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 2867-0378

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2506-2664

Volume 38, Issue 51

Volume 38, Issue 51, Summer 2008, Page 1-655

Martin Luther: The Outset of Reform and Protestantism

Ayad Ali Yaseen

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 0-0

Luther played an influential role in the religious reformation in Germany where he was interested in Studying the different intellectual currents prevalent in his age such as mysticism, and the human philosophy.
Luther’s revolution was not a normal one against corrupt rule or bad social situation. But rather, it was a revolution against a thelogic system that lost its credibility. Luther concluded from his religious readings that the Christians could not gain salvation thanks to their personal efforts but through a mercy from God for they believe in Him. This conclusion pushed him to reject some basic principles and beliefs in Catholic Church. So Luther distinguished himself in Christian history, for he was the man who saved the Christians from the papal au-thorities and brought them back to the freedom of religion. Luther himself led the schism that lasted in America, Britian and Germany up till the presentday.

Panoramas of Fruitful Trees on Landscapes in the Assyrian Art

Huseen Thaheer; Ghassan M

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 1-24

& Ghassan M.(**)
The present study investigates the kinds of the fruitful trees on the paintings in the Assyrian Art and their artiste style. The significance of the study lies in highlighting the history of cultivating these trees in Iraq and economic and nutritive benefits for the vitamins they contain that necessary for human health Similarly, it lies also in showing their importance in wood industry and manufacturing doors, windows, safa and chairs . These trees also share in decorating and framing the reliefs. The relaxant panoramas also reflect the abundance of these trees in the country like: olive, grape, fig, apple, and soon . In addition to palm tree which the oldest tree in Iraq. The study also uncovers that the ancient Iraqis were fond of cultivating lash green gardens around their palace and temples with various types of fruits, vegetables and flowers especially in the Assyrian era.

Assessment of Economic Effect of the Handicapped Rehabilitation Program

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 95-114

The research aims at taking care with the handicapped and helping them to exploit their abilities and talents. It emphasizes that not every one lost one of his parts becomes disabled, for he still has other talents to be discovered, developed and exploited in suitable jobs and crafts. All he needs is training that suits his abilities. The research aims also at restoring the handicapped their social, physical and mental status to the extent that enables them to use their talents. The research concludes with the result that vocational rehabilitation is one of the regulative and comprehensive factors that enable the handicapped to adapt himself socially and economically to his society through providing him with vocational training that suits his talents, faculties and abilities, and offering him a job. This turns him in to a productive and self-independent individual.

American Pragmatism: A Reading in the Background of the Sudan Peace Law

Thakir Muhy Aldeen

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 115-144

The international political scene after september 11 indicates a radical change in the interests of the American Administration towards wold hot issues including Sudan's issues and crises especially the peace issue. However, the Anerican position as to visions, attitudes and methods of achieving this goals is controversial. This reflects the unvividness of the American position towards Sudan's issues and crises and even the future of Sudan.
It is an attempt in this paper to figure out the American pragmatism and the factors behind the issuing of the Sudan peace Law in 2005.

Arabs and Justice, before Islam and during the Prophet Reign

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 145-162

The research treats of the Arab comparative review of the notion of justice before and after Islam. It, also, gives a linguistic definitions of the term "justice "and its derivations with some idiomatic meanings. Moreover, the research tackles the development of the notion of "justice "before and after Islam and the social conditions that pinpointed the notion at that time.
The research indicates that the notion of justice before and after Islam means, for the most, securing the influential men's interests against the poor's .
After Islam the norms was entirely different, and the question of "Justice" became God's law which applies to every Muslim whether they are lords or slaves, the rich or the poor, the governors or the governed. The justice, also, applies to every body notably the Prophet Mohammed (God's blessings be upon him). Moreover, it applies to non-Muslims and this feature distinguishes Islam from other religions. Thus, justice from Islamic point of view, is a perfect judicial system which tackles all questions of life, especially, political, economical and social aspects. This viewpoint is one of the basic factors which contributed in spreading Islam among the non-Muslims.

Sources of Ibn Khallikān of Andalusian Writings in His Book “Wafiyat Al-A’yān”

Aziz Chasim Mohammad

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 163-196

The book of "Wafiyat Al-A'yan wa Anba Abna' Azzman" is considered as one of the famous book in biographies which was well-known all over the world. The book contains biographies of the major famous scholars from different social classes. It covers a large area from Iraq and many other eastern and western countries. It's author is Ahmed bin Mohammad bin Ibrahim bin Khallikan who was one of the outstanding historian in the field biography. The sources of the study of bin Khallikan are of the Andalusian writings uncover historical importance. Because. It is regarded as an attempt to know and recognize all the names of the great men on which bin Khallikan depended that he mentioned in his biographies. The research, also, tackles the arrangement of the Andalusian writings which were the source of bin Khallikan in his book. It was arranged according to the chronological order of the death of the author.

Rights of Subjects of the Assyrian Kingdom in Neo-Assyrian period (911-612 B.C)

Safwan Samy Saeed

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 235-266

The topic deals with the rights relating to the subjects who were belonging to the Assyrian kingdom in its new period is regarded as one of the important subject which helps to understand and recognize the originality of services and law which reflect the long shot run by the Assyrian kingdom in services and administration advancement which aimed at arrangement life of society members, and discipline of their behaviors which serve the interests of the society, and guarantee the rights of the individual.
According, the research aims at studying the nature of duties and services entrusted to the kingdom as to its subjects.
Consequently, this research has been divided into four axes namely:
Firstly / security axis which imposes safety and discipline.
Secondly/Lawful axis which spreads out justice and application of law.
Thirdly/Economic axis is for securing the sources needed for livelihood.
Fourth/ Services axis, the aim of which is to serve relating routes of transpirations and communications.

On Surat Al-Humaza Rhtoric Study

Ahmad Fathi Ramadan

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 295-318

This paper deals will some verses in “Surat Al-Humaza” in Quran. It rackes different styles in this Sura mainly which deal with form and meaning, the aesthetic and artistic sides of these styles. Finally it gives the reader a good idea of the rhetoric values of these aspects of the Sura.

دلالة ما جاء على صيغة "فـُعُل" في القرآن الكريم

n Yahya

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 329-352

The present study deals with Quranic nouns which have the root (فـُعُل) (fu’ul). They have the formula of the bare triple noun. The number of words which have this formula are 19 arranged alphabetically for convenience so that the study can appear in the form of a Quranic semantic lexicon for a category of Quranic words namely:
((أ ُذ ُن، اُفـُق، اُكـُل، ثـُلـُث، ثـُمُن جُرُف، حُبُك، حـُلـُم، خـُمُس، رُبُع، سُدُس، ظـُفـُر، عُمُر، عُنـُق، فـُرُط، قـُبُل، قـُدُس، نـُزُل، نـُصُب))
The major finding of the study is that the classification of words which have this root by grammarians in to nouns and adjectives may only apply to part of the category. However, some words which are dealt with in this paper have both functions of nouns and adjectives with a priority of one to another.

The Grammatical Interpretation upon Al-Azhari, in his book (Meaning of Readings)

Abd Al-star Fathil; Roba Yonus

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 353-382

Al-Azhari is Muhammed bin Ahmed bin Abu Mansur Al-harawi Al-Shafii, the linguist. He was born in (282) A. H. in Hurat, one of the famous Khurasan's cities. He brought up in it and received science from its old men and scientists. He also became famous in philology and Hadith. However, he skilled in linguistics and even a number of his translators introduced him as a linguist in identifying him. His fame in philology come after his fame in linguistics. He is one of the four leaders of language, who are agreed on their favour, knowledge and authenticity with them. He is an authority of what he transfers of Arab speech.
One of his famous old men is Al-Husein bin Idris, Abu Ali Al-Ansari Al-harawi (died in 301 A. H.), Abdul-allah bin Aurua Al-harawi (died in 311 A. H.), Abu Al-Qasim Abdul-allah bin Muhammed bin Al-murzaban Al-bagdawi (died in 317) and others. He taught many students who became famous leaders such as Junada bin Muhammed bin Al-Husein Al-Harawi (died in 399 A.H.) Abu Aubied bin Ahmed bin Muhammed Al-Harawi Al-shafii (died in 401 A.H.), Abu-Alhasan Ali bin Muhammed Al-Harawi (died in 429 A.H.), Istaq bin Abi Ishaq Al-Qrab (died in 429 A.H.), Abu Othman Al-Quraishi Al-Harawi (died in 433 A.H.), Abu-Thar Abed bin Ahmed Al-Harawi Al-Ansari (died in 434 A.H.) and others.
Al-Azhari had left a huge scientific literature in various fields. His famous books are:
(Correction of the language), (The flourised in strange words of Al-shafii), (The readings and faults of the grammarians.) which named (Faults of Readings).
His book (Meaning of Readings) which is the field of our investigation beside his other books are witness of his wide-experience and knowledge in the language. Al-Azhari tackled in this book the meaning of the seven known readings that are readings of Ibn Amer (died in 118 A.H.), Ibn Kather (died in 120 A.H.) Asim (died in 127 A.H.), Abi Amru (died in 154 A.H), Hamza (died 156 A.H), Nafia (died in 169 A.H.) and Al-Kisai (died in 189 A.H.), adding to it reading of Ya'aqubi Al-hadhrami (died in 205 A.H.), explaining what is related with the meaning of each reading in phonology, morphology, grammar and semantics. The linguist sections varied in this book. The grammatical sections have their clear importance in grammatical interpretation which is considered obvious phenomenon in Al-azhari's book (Meaning of Readings) and this is the subject of this research which will concern with.

Qurānic Rectation in Ibn Hishām’s Book “Sharh Qatrual Nada wa Balul Sada” AGrammatical Study

Nawfal Ali Majeed

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 383-414

We are obliged first of all, to refer that our research marked (Quranic Recitations in Ibn Hisham’s book “Sharh Qatrual Nada wa Balul Sada”, A Grammactial study) is free of any justification to Quranic Recitations of which Ibn Hisham had presented his attitude because we have set a specific section for that subject. In addition, our method has depended upon choosing Recitation that have an Arabizing problem. Also we may have been obliged to mention one Recitation and any other one because Ibn Hisham did not mention others. We have drawn out the names of reciters who had recited with the mentioned Recitations out of their original resources.
Our research falls into two chapters. The first has been entitled (Arabizing explanation) in which we have presented the most important Quranic Recitations whether they are frequent or irregular. As the recite of (يرثني) and (يرث) are recited in nominative and jussive cases Similarly the irregular Recitation (رب) is recited in a nominative case. We have studied the justification of these Recitations by explaining schollars’ opinions in this matter. We may have an opinion that we have proved at the end of every grammatical problem. The second chapter came under the title (Grammatical Explanation). In this chapter, Recitations are as multiple as the grammatical explanation in Arabic because explanation can be achieved by omission, advancing and delaying, empty morphs and implicitness etc. Among these mentioned explanations is the explanation by omission. One of its forms is the omission of the noun as in (حين) in nominative case. The omission of letters as in (يرسل) and (يا مال), explanation by advancing and delaying as (البر) in objective case and explanation by empty morph as (ليخرجن). We have referred to the term (empty morph) and its semantics in terminology at the beginning of our speech. We have mentioned that Ibn Hisham had refused to use terms in his books other than (Sharh Qatrul Nada) but he had contradicted in his very book that we study.

Information Retrieval Standard Z39.50

Rafal Nazar Abd Al-kadir

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 415-438

This studies aims at identifying and summarizing The importance of the International Standard (Z39.50) as a systematic Standard that make the Intercommunication between the different systems within one utility possible. The study also identify the concept of (Z39.50) with its historical background, uses, importance and future.

Electronic Trading and Economic espionage

Rawa Zeki AL-Taweel

اداب الرافدین, 2008, السنة 38, العدد 51, الصفحة 439-458

The present study sheds light on electronic trading and economic espionage Electronic commerce is a complete chain of operations and channels of selling distributing and marketing porducts by electronic means.
Electronic commerce is spread all over the world via internet and electronic commumications. This kind of cemmerce has succeded because of the developpement of technology and the increasing number of markets. To add, nowadays, we witness the birth of economic espionage.