ISSN: 0378-2867

Volume 38, Issue 52

Volume 38, Issue 52, Autumn 2008, Page 1-668

Polygamy: Its Reasons and Social Reflections A field Study in Mosul

Hatem Younis Mahmood

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 1-38

The research deals with polygamy, its reasons and its social reflections, because this system has positive and negative reflections through the real reflection on person, family and society. These positive reflections must be enhanced in the family and society. Where as the negative reflections must be faced in order not to affect the person whether husband or wife and children which consequently affects the family itself. Affecting the family means affecting the society. The research has arrived the positiveness and the negativeness of polygamy has given directions to enhance the possessiveness and treat the negativeness.

Deduced Values from Islamic Education Curriclums in the Secondry Level Analyctic Study

Khalid M. Hamy; Hind A. Ahmmad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 39-76

Social behavior is the dynamic aspect that expressing man’s values and atittude towards his / their issues. Theses values come from the acquired expeareances according to the culture of the society in which man lives. Consequently he / she will be qualified to impersonate the social roles. Moreover, the surrounding enviroment determines the prevailing values in the society as far as the form and content are concerned. Therefore any individual is surrounded by a system of values.
Adhrence with the social values vary from time to time and from place to another according to the enviroments and interaction between individuals and society. On the contrary, the religious values seem to be stable comparing with the social ones. In this respect we refer to man’s behavior with or without faith.

Ecological Circumstances Surrounding work and Their Effects on the Worker

Hany Ahmad Younis

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 77-94

This research aims at affirming that there is a relationship between the environmental conditions surrounding the work and the work group and satisfaction at ready-made clothes factory in Mosul. The research sample consisted of (105) individuals chosen randomly who working in the factory. The study has consisted of Questionnaire included two first public statements and the second specific ones, which goes with research sample. As a result the researcher used several statistical methods to obtain the final results which showed that there was a relationship between environmental conditions surrounding the driver and his weight to 59% capacity in general. The research results show that there is a connection between good environmental conditions surrounding the driver and the (Health Group, the game and fatigue, increased production) particularly. In light of these findings, researcher recommends more attentions to be paid to employees by providing good surrounding environment for their health and comfort and reduce their exhaustion and their work towards increasing production.

Mosque Building in The Eastern Coast of Africa Till End of The ninth Century (A.H)

Bshar Akrm Gameel

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 95-122

The East-African Coast is regarded as one of the oldest locations that has direct contact with the Islamic world . settlers of this territory are characterized by having a very old and strong relationship with Arabs even before Islam. Commerce in general played a big role nourishing this relationship. with the arrival and commencement of the Islamic religion to these locations came a development of relationships spreading them throughout the whole African continent. Migration between the Arab and African lands also played a role similar to that of commerce in fortifying these relationships.
As the number of merchants who established themselves along the African coastline increased along with the arrival of large groups of immigrants, there came a desperate need for mosques to be built both in the original cities along the coastline and the newly established Muslim cities. city planning and development started according to Islamic traditions and architecture and settlers started investing in the building of the mosques. the traditions and architectural styles of the original cities which setters and migrants came from were reflected in the newly–built cities. As time went by small mosques evolved into bigger mosques with Friday prayers and other ceremonial and religions activities. mosques became of very many shapes and sizes and were then followed by the building of all sorts of establishments.
The Arab–Islamic style and tradition controlled the forms of mosques along the East–African coast, although there were a few traces of non–Islamic, non–Arab architecture here and there. A complete architectural view formed as one looks at the mosques and all their parts including the place of prayer, the prayer–call tower and the mosques dome.

Health Services in Baghdad (1917-1869)

Luma Abd Al-Aziz

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 123-148

Health is considered as one of those social entities concerned with the enonomic relations between people. it reflects the social condition and its progress. Thus we can observe the spread of desease among underdeveloped societies .
Iraq witnessed under the Ottoman empire which extended for four centuries, the most bad condition of poverty, sickness and illiteracy. The conditions caused the spread of diseases such as measles mumps .
The Ottoman conquest showed no interest in the health of Iraqi people especially in Baghdad except some personal efforts exerted by Medhat Pasha who made the first public hospitals. these hospitals had been paid no attention with the end of the Ottoman empire, they were only five hospitals.
Yet those hospitals faced many problems in their duty in treating people due to the lack of financial allocations such as the capacity and their supplies with medical equipments. The second problem was the lack of the qualified cadres who were specialzed in various medical fields. This was the most problem which remaind till the first decade of the 20th century till the Iraqi pioneering of doctors graduated from the colleges of medicine.
Another negative point was concerned with the geographical distribution of the doctors, and medical centers. They were gathered in Baghdad except for some centers in Karbala. What made the situation worse was the failure of the whole medical situations concerned those visitors of the sacred shrines which caused the spread of diseases and caused a large number of deaths especially in Baghdad.

The Endowment of ’Uday Bin Musāfir Shrine

Manhal I Al-Ali

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 149-176

This study deals with the waqf (endowment) of ’Uday Bin Musafir shrine in the area of Sheikhan in the north of Mosul city. It studies the location and the description of ’Uday Bin Musafir's shrine and everything that belong to it. It is found that there is a special religious school belongs to Sheikh ’Uday. The school contains twenty students. They -as well as their teachers- were receiving salaries. The most well-known scholars there were Ameen uff AI-Qaraqaghi and Othman Uff AI-Dewaji and his brother Ahmed Uff AI-Dewaji.
Their salaries were estimated to up to 1000 Qursh per person. The teaching materials taught in the school were related to philosophy and mind. It is also found that there was an endowment belonging particularly to the shrine and that there were people in charge of taking care of it. There were also a number of people responsible for the revenues of the shrine.

The Messenger’s Activities in al-Madina al-Munawwarah

Mohammad Omer Ahmad

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 177-191

When Islam came into being in Mecca, the Messenger (peace be upon him) and his companions faced a strong resistance, which made him migrate to al-Madina al-Munawwarah whose people welcomed him and pledged allegiance to him, there the Islamic state was established in al-Madina al-Munawwarah .
The study deals with the Messenger’s activities in al-Madina al-Munawwarah. When the Messenger (peace be upon him) entered al-Madina, he started setting up the Islamic state on solid basis through establishing some institutions and organizations among which the building of the Mosque was but the first step that led to the social and religious construction of the new state. Then he declared the fraternity between al-mahajireen and al-ansar to solve the social and economic problems faced by al-mahajireen upon their arrival at al-Madina al-Munawwarah .
Then the Messenger (peace be upon him) began to organize the relationships among the people of al-Madina on the one hand and establish the pillars of the new state on the other hand. Thus the Messenger (peace be upon him) forwarded the constitution for the Muslims to organize their life in al-Madina and determine their relationships with the neighbouring cities. Such constitution reflected the legislation and comprehended the conditions of the people. Then, the Messenger (peace be upon him) turned to the Islamic army trying to organize to exalt the Word of Allah and protect the Islamic community.

Abdu AL-Auza bin Abdu AL-Mutalib (Abu Lahab) His Life and His Hostile Attitude towards Islamic Mission

Ikhlas Abed-AL-Razak Mahmod

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 177-222

All of us know that Abu Lahab has a great role in resisting the Islamic mission. The prophet (God's blessing and peace be upon him) wasn’t confronting the danger of the unbelievers only, but what larger than this is that of the unbelievers from his relatives of Banu Hashem like Abu Lahab and others. They stood strongly and severely against him and worked to destroying his mission by all means. Here other one may ask this question why we had mentioned Abu Lahab more than others of Quriash Leaders?
We say that because Abu Lahab was the Prophet's uncle and one of the famous heads of Banu Hashem, to whom a sura devoted in the holy Quran promising with a punishment, torture and grace in his life and death. So that, his hostile attitude provoked the unbelievers and strengthened their pretext in his hostility, destroying him and his mission. Therefore, his attitude united with the rest of Quriesh influential Leaders from the beginning, because they felt that the Islamic mission will damage their profits and ruin their privileges, so they plotted conspiracies and made anti-powers against the Prophet. Then Abu Lahab separated from tribalism to money and privilege.
I had mentioned in this research the details of events and reviewing them from two sides:
First: Life of Abu Lahab before Islam.
Second: His attitude towards Islamic mission.
And I concluded it by analyzing the opposition of Abu Lahab its reasons, results and death (God curse him).

Hassan Al-Basri Prose-Phonological Study

Abdullh Fathi Althahir

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 259-294

This present paper investigates the aesthetic aspects of rhythm in prose texts that were written by Hassan Al-Basri. The study uncovers the units resulting out of the acoustic resonants that bear the stylistic features in the analysed prose texts. Selective appraoch of samples has been followed in order to ward off the recurrency and prolonging.
The study defines rhythm as a recurrent sequence between sound and silent, light and dark, motion and Quiesence, strength and weakness, pressure and softness, longness and shortness...etc. Thus it is a relation between part and whole, between part and other parts in the artistic work. All this to be in a systemic and dynamic frame in the artistic form.
Finally the results of the study were put forward.

Quranic Expressions with Three Readings

Firas Abd Al-Aziz Abd Al-Qadir

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 295-330

The research entitled "What is recited in three different vowel points in Quran" deals with Quranic utterances that came to be recited with triple vowel points. We mean by tripling, reciting the Quranic utterances with three different vowel points. While we were scanning the places where such Quranic recitation occurred, we found that the difference in the vowel points as triple was caused by two main reasons: first, the linguistic and dialectal difference in pronouncing the utterance, and the second, the grammatical different parsing of the utterance. So, we divided the research into two parts. We entitled the first "The linguistic orientation of the recited in tripling", in which we treated the pronunciation of the letter which is vowelized with triple vowel points according to its dialectal pronunciation. We entitled the second part "Grammatical orientation of what is recited in tripling and its vowel point" in which we treated the variation in parsing the utterance that is vowelized with nominative, accusative and jussive, and the grammatical orientation of that utterance. Our work has established the origin of the recitation and who recited it. It followed up with linguistic and grammatical analysis for all discussed uttera

Media words in the Qurān- Semantic Study

Amjad Al-Uthman

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 331-366

Nowadays many words spreading in mass media whether audio-visual or print. We have chosen this most important words used in the Arab media to show their significance. How to use them and the context in which they were used in the Holy Qurān was the title of research (Media words in the Qurān - semantic study).
Although these words are common nowadays in media, the study adopts a well-known dictionary written by Dr. Abudwahāb Najm, that is (Mass Media Dictionary). It is one of the most prominent book as far as media expressions are concerned both in English and Arabic. Out of which we derive the originality of these media expressions in our study.

The wording of such words (terrorized -colonized declared -the party-became common-newspapers-community-news and the news) have their place in the study then came the conclusions of this research included the overall search results.
Such study allows researchers to develope language in the examination of the words. It is recommended to do a comprehensive study of the media in the Qurān as a whole to indicate which of the right or the wrong use of those words.
The study showed the importance of the media and how the word used in Qurān.

Comments on Sibawaihi’s Orienting Robbery Verse

Rawa Mohammad Al-zrry

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 343-258

This research shows a controversial syntactic question by the giant of syntax and exegesis on Sibawaihi's orientation of Robbery verse in the Glorious Qurān. We preferred to divide the study into two parts, though both have a general perspective to explain its ambiguity. The first one is listed under the title "The Predicate of the Subject in the Nominal Sentence". While the second has the heading "Reading the Accusative".
The controversy of the first case has started in theorizing the rules of syntax according to the exegetist and those who consulted the surface meaning. As for the controversy of the second one (Reading the Accusative) was much more apparent to the extent that those who disagreed Sibawaihi's viewpoint were considered as audacious. The research concludes that the semantic element is closely linked with the syntactic one. Sibawaihi was not only after the syntactic view point but also the semantic one.

Image Formation in the Poem of “Mirage City” by Khaleel Al-Khuree

Ikhlas Mahmood Abdalla

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 367-390

This study (Images in Khalil Khuri’s Madinat Al-Sarab) lit: means “mirage city” deals with formation of images, as for as the poem, it is a mosaic of images when contrasts, colours, actions, rhythms, similies, and metaphors are formed. In addition to the psychological formation of setting .
So, the poem can be regarded as a wide space which gathers contrast and many other things.

Symbolism in Sami Mahdi's Poetry In His Poetic Collection (Continents Mail)

Hamad Mohammad Fathi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 391-410

Symbolis considered as a mean of referring with emotion through psychological raising not through naming and declaring . It is considered one of the most famous poetry forms and techniques in Modern Arabic poetry. The poet intends using the word or phrase to refer to another thing, the symbol is contrasted with metaphor and comparison , lacking to similar and may be described as a kind of mask blinding these ideas.
So the symbolis always a mean to transporting emotions and rare complex conscious cases, and not as a mean of describing an ideology, because ideology has its fixed symbols to express any style of idea. Man cannot accept that the symbol is calling just by emotions, because each nation's literature has its traditional symbols In Arabic there are Sword, Crescent. All these symbols bears meanings that all knew but the symbolic poet has his special way in building his symbols .The symbol is a kind of trying to pass the reality that can not talk about in a direct way for different reasons to reflect the reality in a way of expressing.

The New Trends of Scientific Management in Libraries and Information Centers: Management by Objectives as Sample

Amaar Abd Al-lteef

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 411-440

The study covers the concept of scientific management and its importance to libraries and information centers in order to meet the needs of the management policy and in our different types of libraries . The fundamental aspects of scientific management and their positive values in libraries and information center are identified. The adoption of these positive values means the shift from the traditional system of management to the modern system that is based on a scientific foundation .The objectives of these values and their effect on the function of libraries and information centers are also identified in the study .
The study also shows the factors that motivated libraries and information centers to adopt the modern methods in their administrative entities . The new trends in scientific management are also covered and more emphasis is given to the managment by objectives as one of the most obvious and important trend in the scientific management . The study also explaines the concept and aspects of the management by objectives in addition to the steps that must be followed to apply this trend in libraries and information center .It also refers to the characteristics that must be available in this trend of management which enable libraries and informations centers to adopt it. Four figures are included in the text of the study.

A Treatise in Attributing Nouns to Plural Noun Written by Ahmed Ibn Sulaimaan Al-Roomi (died in 940 H)

Ibraim Mohammed; Rafi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 441-456

tackles the rules of attributing nouns to plural in addition to showing the misreading of some scholars with regard to attribution of some expressions and their justification for that attribution. This treatise is written by, Ahmed Ibn Sulaimaan Al-Roomi, mostly known as: Ibn Kamal Pasha. The verification of this treatise (Attributing Nouns to Plural) is based on a unique copy found in the library of Mosul Endowment Directorate. It seems that its copier had copied it from the author’s copy or from another copy. The method adopted in the verification of this treatise is as follows:
• Editing the text of the treatise carefully and precisely, according to the modern dictation.
• Taking care of the grammatical features of the treatise.
• Verifying the indicated texts in a suitable and scientific way and documenting the views therein.
Summarizing the comments and biographies in footnotes if the need arises.

The Role of Theater in Developing Inviromental Awarness of Rural SchoolsPupils

A- Saleem; Najim Elddin

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 457-468

Youngsters, reactions and responses to the theater are more freely and quickly. So it is important to use the theater as teaching method for youngsters. This importance will be increased according to the absence or limitation of social institutions activities in the villages which takes care of youngsters, and provides suitable environment to explore their energies. Theater increases the knowledge of the pupils of rural schools. Similarly it deepens the awareness in many fields. As a result they could serve their families and bridge the school with the society.

Intrusion Des Mots Turcs Dans le Parler de Mossoul

Tawfik Aziz Abdullah

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 38, Issue 52, Pages 636-654

يهدف البحث إلى دراسة لغوية لدخول الكلمات التركية في لهجة أهل الموصل. كما يتناول البحث القرض اللغوي وأسبابه، فالكلمات تدخل اللغة بسهولة إما عن الطريق التجارة أو العلاقات الوطيدة بين شعبين يعيشان ضمن منطقة جغرافية واحدة أو نتيجة العلاقات السياسية والاقتصادية والثقافية. إن الكلمات التي تدخل لغة ما تتعرض إلى تشوهات صوتية نتيجة اختلاف بين نظامين صوتيين. ويعدُّ القرض اللغوي ظاهرة لغوية تحدث لجميع لغات العالم بالرغم من اعتراضات اللغويين وخوفهم على نقاوة لغتهم. وأخيرا يقدم البحث مجمعاً صغيراً للكلمات التي دخلت لهجة أهل الموصل في المجالات الاقتصادية والعسكرية والثقافية والإدارية.