ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 2867-0378

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2506-2664

السنة 37, العدد 46

السنة 37، العدد 46، الشتاء 2007، الصفحة 1-453

The Spread of Shāf’i School in Arabian and Islamic Regions28

Natiq Saleeh Matloob

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 1-28

This research is an attempt to tackle subjective and objective factors beyond the spread of Shāf’i school in Arabian and Islamic regions. We emphasize the role of pioneers and their students (scholars) who had contribution in the spread of the mazhab through their teaching and explaning the principles of this school .The three pillars (the pioneers, the scholars and the contributions) are the major factors behind the spread of every islamic school. The continuity and spread of the islamic doctrine is gorevned by consective narrators.

The Political Relations Between Armeenia Minor Kingdom and the Neighbouring Islamic States

a Mahmood Kadawy; All

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 29-63

The study deals with the relation between Armeenia kingdom and Islamic powers. It tsckles the political conditions of Armeenia in the second half of the Fifth Century-Hijra./ The Eleventh Century. They immigrated from their origin places to Qilikiya. They established their Imara which was known as Minor Arminia kingdom. Because of its situation between Mosul, Jazirra and Syria, it had political relations with the Islamic powers such as Saljuki, Danishmandi, Aratika and Zankis.
Others such as Bizantiz and Crusaders had a role in directing such relation which was almost unfriendly, with the exceptions in some periods with some Armenian leaders. They made allies with some Moslims powers to oppose personal demands of crusade Ameers in Qilikiya.

The Spreading of Shāfi’i Mazhab in The Islamic East During The 3rd and 4th Hijra Centuries

Abd-Al-Qadir Ahmed Yonis

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 64-84

Though there were many other mazhabs, the Shāfi’i one school of jurisprudence became dominant in the Islamic East due to the travels of the East Scholars. Their journeys to Iraq and Egypt where it was first appeared. Scholars received this mazhab from the students of the imam Shāfi’i. Then they introduced it to the countries and cities in East. The acceptability of this school of jurisprudence in the East has its influence in the activity of its followers and their disseminating played a great role to make it dominant.
These scholars made it popular or dominant by teaching it in the mosques, debates, and seminars which they held for the students who were attending these places in large numbers. Furthermore there were many books written by the scholars tackling this school whether to summerize or to explain it.

Israeli Strategy of Water Resources and the Arab Water Security

Saad Tawfik Aziz Al-Bzaz

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 85-108

The Israeil ambitions in the Arab countries and their water resources dateback to the establishment of the Zionist movement . This movement considered water as a strategic factor in esdablishing the so called ,great Israel. Realizing that water security is among the priorities of notional security. Watešhortage is due to the ambitions and expansion policies of Israel in the Arab waters and a part of its inhabitant strategies.
Israel started considering its needs of water, and it realized that Jondan and Litani rivers could meet the agricultural and industrial need in Palestine in a ddition to the out side the Palestinian territories river Eupherates if it could be expanded.

Jêrusalèm in Abi-Shama Al-Maqdisy’s book “Al-Roudation”

AbdAllh Fathi Al-Daher

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 109-131

واكب شعر الجهاد والفتوحات الإسلامية معارك الجهاد الإسلامي منذ صدر الإسلام إلى يومنا هذا، وكان بحق وثيقة تاريخية مهمة لدارسي التاريخ الإسلامي وتاريخ الأدب، فقد سجلت تلك الأشعار صور معارك الجهاد وبطولات قادتها وجندها ورثت الشهداء.... وكان لتلك الأشعار الدور الفاعل في إثارة همم المقاتلين وإلهاب الحماس في نفوسهم، كما سجلت مشاعر المجاهدين إزاء بلادهم وحنينهم إليها والى الأهل والولد والأحبة ووصف الشعراء البلاد المفتوحة والبلاد التي أنقذتها هممٌ المجاهدين وسيوفهم ووصفوا العدو المنهزم ورحمة الجندي المسلم بالعدو وبطش العدو بالمسلمين... وكانت أشعارهم صادقة معبرة.....
ولا شك أن الحروب الصليبية كانت قد أجّجت مشاعر الشعراء فضلا عن عامة الناس فألهبت فيهم الشاعرية لذلك راحوا يصفون عظم المأساة التي وضعهم فيها الصليبيون أثر احتلال جزء من بلاد العرب والقدس الشريف، ولقد كانت البلاد حين دخول الصليبين مفككة لا رابط يوحد بين أجزائها المترامية، فقد انشغل اغلب أمرائها بنزاعات وصراعات داخلية أضعفتهم على مدى السنين وأذهبت ريحهم ولم

The Hereafter Spatial Comparison in Soorat Al-Wakiah Rhetorical descriptive study

Asma; a S. Edham Al-khatab

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 132-165

Place is considered an important element of stability and tranquility of all creation. Man realized this process since his creation and appearence on the surface of the earth. So he took it as asylum and residence in which he could protect himself. The place, moreover, is a frame which embraces the events of the literary arts as awhole. Therfore; the modern literary studies paid great attention to place. It is not new to say that description as it is described as the technique of formulating the text finds in the place what glorifies its existence and its deep roots in the maps and details of the objects. The character relation with the place is however open to spontaneous and objective visions is its structure and constitution.
Soorat Al-wakiah is based on the comparision between paradise and its dwellers on one hand and fire and its dwellers on the other hand and the fate of each group in the Day of Resurrection. The style of expressing the verses of this surah achieved by spatial comparision contributed actively in the process of conviction. This style gave man the chance to think of the two compared objects in order to get after that the judgement of which one is the right to be followed and which one is the best to be selected. The research consists of three axes, the first: the place of the predecessors, the second: the place of the people who have got their books on their right hands and the third axis is the place of the people who have got their books on their left hand. Through these axes, we will recognize the most important characteristics of the Hereafter place which carried multi significations and various senses in away that suits the purposes of the Koranic expression.
Finally. we say that achieving the intellectual aspects of the place through the comparison between paradise/fire was not isolated from the nice show, the suitable performance, the excellent production and the skillful imagination. It was on the contrary having a close relations with the abovementioned, criteria
Thus, the spatial comparison was the rhetorical article which showed and made clear the intellectual aspects in a way that could uncover the secrets of this immortal book i.e. the Kora

Abu Layla’s Linguistic Narrations In Al – Ayn

Abdul Al-Aziz Y. Abdulla

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 166-193

Abu Layla is one of the old linguists who contributed greatly in linguistics. Some of his narrations were found in some references especially in dictionaries such (Al–Ayn) which was written by AL–Khalil Ibn Ahmad AL– Fraheedi (died 175 A.H ). The present research is of an introduction and two parts. Part one includes an autobiography of Abu Layla as well as a study of his narrations in (Al–Ayn). Part two includes the texts which are classified alphabetically. I have mentioned the refrences in the footnotes.

The Mobile Libraries: Their Definition, Aims, the Way of Their Implementation, and Requirements of Their foundation.

Saad A.Ismail

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 191-219

The research aims at demonstrating the imporance of the mobile library in disseminating the cultural, social and hygenic knowledge among the population of villages, rural and remote areas where the majority of inhabitants dwell, which affect all the aspects of the programs of development. The research discusses the mobile library, its definition, objectives, the way of its implementation, and requirements of its foundation, with a glance at the conditions of this library in developed and underdeveloped countries. The research ends with some recommendations which lead to increasing attention to this kind of libraries. The research follows the historical method and depended on subject literature in collecting information The research ends with some recommendations.

Abstract Some Procedures of the Islamic Arab State for Reducing the Pollution of Air and Water in Iraq

Taha Khather Abeed

اداب الرافدین, 2007, السنة 37, العدد 46, الصفحة 245-270

The paper is an attempt to study the procedures followed by the Islamic Arab State to reduce the pollution of air and water in the Islamic Arab Cities in Iraq .It covers the period extending from the beginning of Islam to the end of the first Abbaside period .It aims at explaining the fact that Arab Muslims preceded the other nations in facing and solving these problems. Similarly, it shows their role in determing the theoretical and scientific aspects that occupied them in their view of environment. Those procedures were adopted before construction when the location was selected and after construction in order to control contamination.
The paper has come up with that the procedures followed by Muslim Arabs is an indication of their developed way of life, since they realized the danger caused by pollution, and they lived in cities suitable for housing.