ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 0378-2867

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2664-2506

Volume 37, Issue 48

Volume 37, Issue 48, Summer 2007, Page 1-536

Synonymy in the Akkadian Language

Synonymy in the Akkadian Language

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 27-65

Synonymy is an old linguistic phenomenon. It means that many words refers to one meaning. For instance, the Arabic verbs قام and نهض (qama and nahatha both lit, mean woke up) and the verbs جاء and أتى(ata and Ja‘a both lit, mean came), so these dichotomies refer to same synonymous meaning. Arab linguists are of two groups as far as synonymy is concerned. Some of the linguists deny synonymy, others assure it. Moreover, in all languages there are many reasons behind this linguistic phenomenon. The interactive movement among the dialects may be the most remarkable reason behind this phenomenon. Some dialects apply a word to indicate certain meaning, others may use another word to indicate the same meaning. Similarly, loan words also have their role to circulate this phenomenon. In this study we shall present some synonymous words in the Akkadian language. These words are of verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. Finally it is worth mentioning that this study may deepen our understanding of the Akkadian language.

Limits and Rules in Epistemic Sociology

Shafeek I. Al-S; lih

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 66-91

The research tackles the topic of Limits and Bases in epistemic sociology. Limits were triggered in the mind of the researcher and inspired by the bases according to construction, Narration and truth.
The limits and bases formed within social epistemic dualism gave rise to scientific and methodological roles framed by thought and sociology.
The research ends with presenting two field studies to prove what has been employed of limits and bases in them.
This research is, in general, a theoritical in the social theory. It relies on bases, facts and pieces of information, some derived from the theoritical literature of sociology and others from history, philosophy in addition to the researcher’s opinion accumulated from his humble knowledge.
The research can be summarized by the following descriptive scheme: Judging the existence of social and epistemic dualism, which takes the form of the final formula of social experiment –according to the philosophical language-, is the picture of material (which is society).
In the lourse of this research, the dimension of dualism have been made clear by specifying the epistimic and idiomatic meaning of “limit and base” as a first attempt to specify a methodology for epistemic sociology. This is conditioned by the dualism following two framewoks:
The first is the society. It is the real existence and the source from which facts and experiments are derived to be formulated within the framework of thought (the second framework of the dualism).
The research was able, at the end, to formulate the content of bases and limits within the framework already explained.

Mosuli Women Political Participation Field Study

Hamdan R. Muhammad

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 92-126

This research endeavors to find the reasons behind rarity of Mosul woman political participation; it also shed light upon the factors affecting it.
The scope of this research contained (120) women from Mosul city, theyrepresent the research community, they were taken from a different quarters of the right and left side of the city. Random sample method was adopted to serve this purpose, a questionnaire prepared for this goal contain (23) questions was distributed among them. And for describing data and their analysis the researcher used percentage, mathematical mediate and the criteria curve.
The highest academic level among the questioned females was the university; they were (18), which is 57% of the whole sample. Where as the answered obtained from a lower academic level (the primary school) were (11) of 8% percentage. It appeared that (107) of the participants in the survey, 89%, think that the prevailing traditional values in the society is relevant to the weak participation of woman, (11) answered negatively to this, i.e. 9%, while (2) of them have had a neutral reply, (I don’t know) that’s 2%.
The results shown that (72) of the participants that’s 60% think that the educational methods are relevant to low political participation of woman, on the other hand (38) of them i.e. 32% answered negatively, while the remaining (15) have had a neutral reply (I don’t know) 8%.

Birth Control for Women A socio-demographic study in Mosul

Firas A. Al-Bayati

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 127-158

The present study aims at studying the matter of birth control in Mosul. As it known that one of the main and direct factors that determine the fertility is birth control. On the one hand, it is a choice for families to organizing the birth averages. It is a means for the decision makers of the demographic policy of the fertility averages.
The study falls into two parts: the first is the theoretical part. The second one is the practical part. Then the first part is subdivided into subsections includes the subject, aims and it significance. The second subsection includes: the historical of birth control and woman and the birth control
The second part includes the method of the study and data analysis. And finally some conclusions and recommendations were put forward.

Ayubi Agricultural Policy in Syn’e

Muhammad S. Hassan

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 159-175

The present research aims at studying the agricultural situatum under the Ayuubi state which was established in the 6 Th century AH /12 Th century, and understanding Its economic abilities and the ways the relative deterioration of agriculture that preceded its foundation as a result of the crusade wars went tackled. the crusade wars that prevailed Belad al sham was in the leng run - a - catastrophe on the economy in gereral and agricultural and agricultural product in particlar .
Furthermore, the military feudal system that was founded on the basin of agriculture Land led the peasants conditions to very low levels. yet, the development of the feudal system in the era of the Ayuubi state especially succession and the transitional nature as the bent means to encourage the knights to defend their feudal property and control the princes related to the states in addition to the exploitation of the land fully, increasing the agricultural product and the development of agriculture.

Education System in Britain (1780-1909)

d A. Al-H; shimi

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 176-194

Education between 1780-1909 caused a gradual development in the states responsibility for education in England. A radical transition took place from the policy of total indifference to the establishment of the theory of the division of educational responsibility between the parents and the state.
There was a prevailing feeling that indicated that priority must be given to the elementary (primary) education , because it was not allowed to ignore children especially after their employment in factories was cancelled.
At a time when the states attitude turned to industry, it was necessary to give all a good deal of the principled education. As a result, a great number of the local educational authorities came into being. Some of them were confined to the elementary (primary) and the others supervised them.

The Coordinator “Waw” and Its Meanings in Al-Zubyani’s Poems, Alyntoctic Study

Abduljab; r A. Al-Sunbis

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 219-243

The present study aims at investigating the meanings and purposes of the coordinator (الواو). The study shows these purposes through reviewing the poems of Nābigha A-Zubyani in order to make sure that whether he uses some certain types of “waw”. These types are not commonly used in Arabic like: waw of denial, waw of remembrance, and waw that replaces the article of question. It is be noted that these poems are free from other types of “waw” of absoluteness and substitution waw.
We have selected these poems because they, as far as we know, cover all types and usages of waw.

Sound and Meaning in the Morphorlogical Quadriliteral Reduplicated Erom in the Qurānic context

Fir; s A. Abdulqadir

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 243-266

This search entitled “the relation between phonology and semantics in the form of the tetra-letter repetitive verb ((فعلل in quranic expression “studies the effect of sounds that forms the individual utterance in the targeting meaning. this problem had been discussed in the past by linguists by relating the utterance (indicative) and meaning .we may consider Al-Khalil Bin Ahmed (Dead in 175 A.H.)
The pioneer of this linguistic theory which he spoke about thoroughly in the introduction of his book “Al-Ain” (العين ). This it was discussed by linguists who came after him ,such as Bin Jinny in his book “Al-Khasaes”(الخصائص)
Our study of the tetra –letter repetitive verb which consists of two repeated letters in the form (فعلل) in the quranic expression has an effect in the meaning that the quranic expression tries to express. these tetra –letter has come in very few positions which we have counted as seven verbs ,these are (حصحص) , (دمدم) , (زحزح) , (زلزل) , (عسعس) , (كبكب) and (وسوس) .
The search has been based on the relation between repetition of letters of these forms phonetically and the quranic meaning meant to express .we have presented in each form a linguists semantic analysis accompanied by paraphrase for the utterance in the verse, i.e. textually, then we have presented a phonological analysis for every letter came in the verbal form. After that, we explained the relation of these two letters as place and manner of articulation with the targeting meaning and the connection of sounds in identifying the semantic meaning.

The Rules of Lasiyama

Abdulkareem O. Ali; an Y. Muhammad

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 267-286

This study an editing of a grammatical letter entitled “The Rules of “Lasyama” (especially) and related matters” by Ahmad bin Shihab ud-din bin Mohammad as-Suja’ee ash-Shafi’ee al-Azhari (died 1197 A. H.). As-Sija’ee maintains in this letter that the noun coming after this particle is either indefinite and has three cases: prepositional complementation (aljar), nominal case (al-Raf’) and the objective case (al-nasb) with degrees of recurrence starting from aljar, al-Raf’ and al-nasb respectively. The noun after this particle could be definite noun and grammarians have agreed that it can have two cases: aljar and alraf’ and they disagreed over the third case: alnasb. As-Snja’ee mentioned all these possibilities illustrating them with examples and differentiating between the strong and the weak in addition to the rules that this particle require such as using (وَ) (and) before the particle and the exception of unstressing the / j / sound lasijama /.

Poetic Formation of wishing in Maghot’s Poems

Ahmmad J. Yaseen

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 287-314

This study deals with poetical froming for the wish in Al-Maghout's poems via investigating. This Phenomena in many of his poems of prose then to analyseit by depending on critical Knowledge in order to reach this phenomena and to take indirect meaning of defferent linguistic signs which were found in wish image which is considered us amain part in the text structure wich belong to external structure.
This study shed light on preface that it handles with the poet persanality from the side that deffer from the common biography in order to chose new prosaic poem us anew technical from of poetical expression which has special fenomena as wish which is tackled by the practical criticism in the pages following the preface.

Poetics of the Implicit Emotious

Al-Dabagh; Nawar Abdulnafi

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 315-330

Mysticirm is the way leading into the reat realas of knowledge. It is realized through gradual, in the first of which a man enters a solitude, where he is completely detached from the materialistic world. The second stage relies on how best he can shun all that might pollute his soul and relay prevent him from realizing abstracts this very stage is parallel to that stage known to the media mystics as (Via Negative), l.e, a stage through which man's mind is completely detached from materialistics and pure spirit. The next stage is called intuitive vision of flashing, the parallel to (Via illumantione) of the mediavel mystics in this stage man realizes facts without being helped beg any anter means.
Finally, comes the stage of attachment of the individual and the eternal law, parallel to (Via Unitva), through which the personality of the mystics is united with the Devine until both vanishes in one another.

Informatic Illiteracy Its Concept and Reflections on the Academic Society

Ammar A. Zain-ul-abideen

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 331-360

This study aim at identifying the concept of information literacy through defining the concepts of both literacy and information isolately. It coves in general the deferent types of literacy in the present society and trys to highlight the place of information literacy among these types of literacy. The reasons behinds the spread of information literacy in our society as well as the methods applied in achieving information illiteracy over the word are also covered.
The study also trys to identify the new trends of information illiteracy in the academic organizations among their staff members and users.In the conclosusion the study recommends to make a general survey on the Mosul University society to identify the limits to which the information literacy is spread in this society.

Interrogation in Akkadian language A Contrastive Study

Ameen Abdulnafi Ameen

اداب الرافدین, السنة 37, العدد 48, الصفحة 361-391

The current research states that interrogation in Akkadian language in contrast with other Arabite languages. It sheds the light on the methods that express interrogation in Akkadian and Arabite languages such as Ugaritic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Ethiopian and Arabic languages. It is demonstrated all the interrogatives whether in particles or rhythms or indirect interrogation, then contrastively tackled to show the models and what has been changed phonologically and semantically.
The research benefited from references written on Akkadian languages as well as other references written on Arabite languages.
One of the most potential points concluded by the research is that most of the Arabite languages were familiar with several models of interrogation as well as the interrogative. The research showed the linguistic and phonological evolution of interrogatives in Arabite languages started from Akkadian being the oldest Arabite written up to Arabic language