ISSN: 0378-2867

Volume 2, Issue 43

Volume 2, Issue 43, Winter 2006, Page 1-440

The Role of Antiquities and Cuneiform Texts in Establishing Iraq Entity


Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 1-14

Iraq is the Cradle of one of few original civilizations in the world. This fact is indicated by the archaeological finds that resulted from the excavations since the mid of nineteenth century. These excavations came out with tens of hundreds of Cuneiform texts inscripted on clay and stone tablets. These tablets, in turn, reflects many aspects of ancient Iraqi civilization. Foreign scholars embarked on studying these antiquities. It is significant to know that many of the texts read have a great similarity with what mentioned in the Old – Testament. This fact is elucidated by tens of papers and studies in foreign Languages along with very few number in Arabic.
Up till now, most of the studies are not entitled with ‘Iraq’, but rather they are with some foreign names or with ancient names like Greek term “Mesopotamia”. This term has been translated into “the land between the two rivers” It is the most commonly used term. However, most of Iraqis do not know exactly what is meant by this term, viz, “Mesopotomia” let alone the ancient names like “Babel”, “Assur”, “Sumer” and so on.
Moreover, Akkadian and Summerian texts were and still are written in Latin and translated into foreign Languages. They introduced exsotic information about ancient history of Iraq. These text use biblical names of the rulers and kings of ancient Iraq.
Adopting such approach in dealing with history of ancient Iraq has religious and ethnic implications. A case like this isolates the present Iraq from its ancient history. Therefore, it is our responsibility to adopt pure Iraqi school that bases on solid scientific grounds in studying our ancient history and in writing its ancient Languages in Arabic Alphabet.

The Effect of Akkadian Empire Concepts on the Palaces Architecture

Huseen Thaheer; Khawla Fiath

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 15-32

This paper studies the relationship between the intellectual tendency and the political trends in the Akkadian period. The study depends on the type and style of the architecture of palaces in general and the reasons of Akkadian interests in particular.
It also studies the influence of this in tellectual tendency on the designing element of palace and the reasons behind using each of them in a way that serves the Akkadian Imperial intellect. The paper employs the designs and architecture of unearthed Akkadian palaces for architecture is an important cultural aspect through those periods. It is a creative art that reflects man’s designing concepts revealing his Personality.

Awilim and Muškénum in to code of Hammourabi

Ahlam Sadalla Al. Talib

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 33-43

Ancient Iraqi laws, among which is with out definite article and some other cuneiform texts refer accidentally to the social classes the ancient Iraqi community consisted of. Some resources see that class differentiation among ancient community individuals, except the slaves, could be traced back to the pennunsula peoples. Their judgement is based on what was mentioned in the ancient Babylonian laws, the first of which is the code of Hammorabi. Many articles of the code included various judgements, and example of these include the inequity of social classes. The law viewed the social classes as non- equal within a political organization united by force. Although Iraqi legislators confirmed on justice in their legislation’s, but they, in general, discriminated among the slaves and non-slaves. They even discriminated among non-slaves and divided them in to what is called awilim and muškánum. The individual rights and duties and kind of punishment differed according to the class he/she belonged to, as this was clearly stated in the code of Hammurabi. The term awilim was translated by some researchers as a man, a master or a free man, If so, awilim refer to someone important whether he was head of a family or leader of an economic unit. The term muškéum is an ambigious one and still under research. Some researchers say that it refers to some one poor, but this does not mean that he is economically poor, or article (8) of the code of Hammurabi states. These two terms are difficult to be included in a limited one according to the circumstances of the ancient Iraqi community.

The Relation between Natural Environment and Man’s Creation in Myths and creeds

Abd Al-Aziez Alyas

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 43-54

This research summarizes the relation between nature and man’s creation according to mythology of ancient nations especially those who had civilization before others, Mesopotamia for example. This question is discussed in detail. The ancient myths indicate that man is “the son of the earth” and he is from its mud. Then the revealed religions came to confirm this fact throughout the heavenly books like the holy Quran and the Torat. In the Glorious Quran some verses mention this fact. Finally , modern science agrees with this analysis and we find kind of agreement between the ancient mythology and creed and with what science proves to be true.

Strength Building and Its Role in Society

Shafeeq Ibrahim Al-Juburi

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 55-70

This analytical study seeks to explain the real life of all societies (whether big or small). Similarly, it explains the real life of some individuals as far as the physical strength is concerned. The researcher finds that it is important to conduct the analysis with the help of sufficient literature on peyehology philosophy and anthropology.
Thoughout the analysis, the researcher depends on sociobog. Essentially, Sociology aims at identifying the relationship between the socialist thought that is to say the principle of strength on the one hand and the socialist reality (i. e. the behaviour that results from that strength) on the other.

Family Organization and Globalization Challenges

Khlil Mohammad Huseen

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 71-90

This research studies the impact of socio-cultural Globalization on family arganization, from all sides:
structural, functional, social roles, and responsibility towards the world. It also, studies the Globalization’s effects on family’s value and other social systems in society.
Globalization will leave deep prints on the whole social structure, to mention its effects on a family’s structure in its values, knowledge, and ethical organization. Firally we will notice the changes towards happermed in recent future, regarding parent’s behavior specially their kids. A case which will change the way of social organization and its objectives.

Causes of the Increasing Violence in the Society A Socio-psychological Study

Salal Hameed Sulaiman

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 91-113

Violence is one of the living being behavior and on of its features. It is as old as the human being existence. But Its Increase has formed a social phenomenon which threatens security, safety and settlement of individuals. Many Held studies indicated the spread of violence in Iraqi society, which has many different shapes, is of a high degree. Hence, this research aims al identifying the causes of the increasing of the mentional phenomenon in society. After recognizing the nation of violence, specifying its most wide-spread types, studying numerous sociological and psychological theories, which has interpreted this phenomenon; I have came to conclusion that the violence due to synchronic internal and foreign factors. Such factors jointly and actively increased this phenomenon emerging it evidently in the Iraqi society during the last two decades.
The natural environment and its difference has created dissimilarity in the nature of the social behavior.
Moreover. the social subdual in which Iraqis have lived under the suppression of the invasion. This invasion has shaped a social structure that lives in the crisis of violence However according to the researchers point of view, the most important factor which finalized this phenomenon and participated in increasing it so clearly are the situational factors. Namely those made by the was and its consequences on the individual and on society. In addition to the terrible consequences made by unjust embargo such as the unadjustable inflation and unemployment joblessness.
This case of unemployment had a grave effects on creating changes in the social policy of the country. It has been accompanied by the decrease of the governmental spending on the services sector and the social welfare. Moreover there were many changes in the virtues and conventions which participated in making the social behavior violate the rules that organized it. Consequently, they fell into the circle the increasing violence.

The Natural disasters in Syria in 6th AH; 12th BC, with Some of their social and economical dimensions

Sultan Ch. S

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 114-134

The research deals with the natural disasters that occurred in Syria in 6th AH such as earthquakes , floods and droughts. It also deals with consequence diseases and epidemics that influenced social and economical aspects of that have a great burden in Syria. At that time syria was a field of struggle between Islamic forces lifeand occupying crusders. As such the situation even worse and causing more human and physical destructions.

Between The Akkadian and Arabic Languages

Khalid Salim Isma

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 135-152

The old linguastic heritage is one of the most important cultural elements in Ancient Iraq. This research aims at emphasize the deep linguastic cooperation between the Akkadian and Arabic Languages despite the difference in time between them.

we try to find correct Arabic meanings of Akkadian vocabularies which are similar in pronounciation depending on old famous dictionaries. Similarly, we try to find the change of many Akkadian vocabularice which depended on foreign translations. to be changed into new meaning.

Reading in the Symbols of Two Poems of Zuhair Bin Abi Sulma

Basim edries

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 153-170

This paper studies the symbols of the pre-Islamic Poetry represented by two samples, namely two poems of the great poet “zuhair Bin Abi Sulma”: his famous long poem and his great poem rhyming with the sound “ك ” (k). The researcher studies the way the poet expresses his ideas by the use of symbols realized by words,
Visions, stories, flirtation, praise, proverbs, names, animals, etc. to praise the two generous men who ended the famous war of Dahis wal Gharbra “between his tribe” Bani Thubian” and their enemies” Bani Abs” and how people enjoyed peace after war. In the poem rhyming with the sound “ك ” (k), symbols are also used represented by names, words, visions, flirtation, the camels, the horse, the story of a howk with a kata when it escape while the howk is waiting and other symbols to deliver Zuhair’s threat to his enemy if the latter did not return the slaves and camels he has stolen.

Fiqh Lexicographies: qts Emergence and Development

Talal Yahya Ibraheem

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 171-186

The present research accounts for the reasons behind the emergence of fiqh Lexicographies, and their importance. Two stages of writing in this field can be recognized the stage of covert writing and the stage of specialized writing the study has illuminated the status and approach of each Lexicography.

Abdul – Baqi bin Murad Al – Umari Al- Mousili ( Died 1109 A.H./ 1697 A.D.)

Abd Allah Ahmola

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 187-211

This poet was born and brought up in Mosul. He studied the different sciences by many sheikhs. He also taught and showed great credit. He travelled many times to the Roman’s Empire and the capital of the Othomans stata, met its scholars, and benefited from them. When he was back, he ruled the District of Mosul and taught at the Younisi Prophetic place.
Historians appreciated his writing and sciences and regaraded him as a nobleman of twelfth centary A.H.
In the present research, We have collected and reuised his poetry. Light has been shed on it all for the puroose of the Mosuli Library and Arabic Islamic

Economic Psychological and Social Factors behind Provision A Field Study in Mosul

Rawa Zeki AL-Taweel

Adab AL Rafidayn, Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 253-174

This study stems from the importance of provision which is considered one of the most essential topics in the life of humans. who suffers from the shortage of sources. The basic effecs of provision are evident in the stability of the economic, political, social and educational conditions which stem basically from security and justice.
The current research tackles the objectives mentioned aobove due to the: Following: the historical circumstances experianced by the people and the embargo. A random sample was selected from different residential areas of Mosul a questionaire, observatory procedures and interviews were conducted in collecting. The data were analysed statistically.