ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 0378-2867

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2664-2506

السنة 35, العدد 40

السنة 35، العدد 40، الشتاء 2005، الصفحة 1-472


Dimensions of Coherence and their Effect on the Working Groups A Factorial Field Study in the mosul yarning and Textile Factory

Najjar; Sabah Ahmed AL

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 1-26

Small groups make the roles of their individuals depend greatly upon each other, a question which can be raised of whether interaction or coherence can be seen within one or multi dimensions, and the possibility of determining those dimensions.
The research aims at determining the levels of social coherence of working groups through a number of changes.
A working group is a social unit of 2-10 individuals related socially face with each other. The believe in certain values and standards which support the group’s purposes.
To achieve has the goal of this research, the research has adopted the sample method of the social survey approach using a certain measurement of coherence among workings.
The results of field research has shown the following:
1. A middle amount of coherence is found among the group under study.
2. Workers having long-term experience shown more response for coherence.
3. Males show more response to social coherence with their groups than females do.
4. Those having intermediate certificate show more response than primary ones.
5. The study indicates states of love and intimacy helping other during work as well as solving problems which create a state of harmony among a group.
6. Face to face interaction (direct) enhances the coherence among working groups. So the smaller the group the greater the coherence.
7. Relation ship between both sex within working fields is weak.
8. An important degree of loyalty to a group is found.
9. Individuals adhere to the group criteria.
10. Informal organization effects production limitation.
11. A group represents a social pressure device on its members.

Mosuli Personality A Socio-Anthropological Study

Muafak waissi Mahmood

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 27-46

The present research is a primary attempt to deduce mosul city from asoico-anthropological point of view in order identify the most important limitations of the Personality. It. thus reveals the basic features of it.
The researcher has started extracting some general results of the studies of national personality along the second half of the 20th Century.
Starting from the pioneering attempt of Dr. Ali Al wardi.
The researcher depends on four basic limitations:
a. Hereditary and biological limitations.
b. Limitations of geographical environment.
c. Limitations of sociological environment.
d. Cultural Limitations.
The researcher has tried to extract the effects of these limitations by analysing the historical and geographical data and their effects on the forms and values of social and cultural building. He then draws an image of mosuli personality which combines both the characters of a smart clever merchant.
Who can snipe chances and is able to respond to the ups and downs of business affairs with the capacity of dodging. He also carries the characters of a military worrier. Who is tuff self-confident and obedience. In some opposing mothers, the character of amilitary man replaces those of merchant. There fore, this character is generally characterized by a sharp mind and the great ability to cope with the different situations and self communing. Such a personality, however, loses the future of initiating to be replaced a headmaster, or a party or political official. Full obedience is required by those of lowness in the power hierarchy. This explains why mosuli is extremely successful when put in the second rank, in executive functions, and as a consultative rather than to be in a position to make decisions.

Al-Hassan Al-Basri Observations (God many have merey upon him) in the world of prophet’s companions.

Mofik S. N

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 47-66

No longer time Al-Hassan Al-Basri had lived in the world of prophet’s companions,. He was a good observer of the moral principles they enjoyed and their relations. He preached the citizens whom he lived with after he had seen the in appropriate behaviours were growing in that society and this had harmed him so much.
These observations were divided in to: their austerity and their position towards life, the moral life of the companions and the Moslim brethren-These are no more than impressions on the life of companions.

“who is responsible for the downfall of Baghdad by the Mongols?”

Mohamed H. Esmael

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 67-89

the present work deals with circumstances which accompanied the invasion of the Islamic Arab state by Mongols which resulted in the occupation of Baghdad and the downfall of the Abbasid caliphate. The research in an attempt to shed light on the circumstances which prevailed at that time and led to the deterioration of the Abased caliphate The research tries to understand the factors which accumulated and became on the state and to bear further responsibilities which made the measures taken by the caliphuseless finally, the caliphate helplessly surrendered.

A New Cuneiform Text Contains A Table of Sequare Roots for The Babylonian Numerous

Khalid Salim Isma

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 106-122

This research sheds light on Sequare roots in the Babylonian mathematics through a Cuneiform text kept in the Iraqi museum; which was found in Tell Harmal site. This text consists of three sides; on each side tables of sequare roots for thirty numbers were written. Therefore; this text shows sequare roots for ninety numbere and their results, they areas the following:
The first side has the sequare roots of the numbers from 1 to 30.
- The second side from 31 to 60.
- The third side from 61 to 90.
This text is considered as one of the unique mathematical texts because of the accuracy in writing this text, its shape and the way of using it.

Prophets elgy in his women companionse

Abdallh Fathe Daheer

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 123-147

The wrote many poems in dealing with the prophet’s death. And this poetry has many features which differentiate it from the test of the Arabic poetry.
These features could be summerized as follows:
1. Most of it were stanzaic.
2. It was without the traditional introduction.
3. Most of them were it known as poets.
4. It looks like the rest of the Arabic poets in it’s artistic structure.

The Language of Islamic Poetry Between Bedouinison and Civilization

Ali Kamal Al-Din Al-Fshhadi

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 147-166

With the advent of Islam the Arabic Language started to improve and develop thanks to the Glorious Quran. People’s life began to change from bedouinism to urbanism. This included poets who neglected the various Arabic dialects and used the Quraish dialect: the language of the Glorious Quran. The public taste improved too, thus ignoring the strange austere bedouin words and embracing many foreign words due to the cultural contact between Arabs and foreign nations.
Ancient critics like Ibn Sallam, Al-Jurjani, Ibn Qutayba, Ibn Rashiq and Hazim Al-Qartajanni (Qartaji?) were aware of this change in their writings as Arabic adopted new words related to Islamic terminology as well as lexes of philosophy, art and science. The use of the bedouin dialect, consequently disappeared from Arbic poetry and was restricted to the description of the desert and its animals.

The Human Body in Pre-Islamic Arabic Poetry

yad M. S. Al-Yozbaky

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 167-184

This paper tackles the concept of the human body from a philosophical point of view and traces back the origins of human consciousness regarding the body as expressed in the Babylonian epic of Gilgamish in which the strength of the body was the basis of heroism.
The paper focuses on the dimensions of the human body in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry which occupied a considerably important place of poetic consciousness before Islam where stature and biological performance in the different activities of life assume aesthetic dimensions epitomised in particular in the image of the knight hero. To add, this poetry attached great importance to the woman’s body taking it as an epitome of beauty expressing the taste of the age.
This paper shows that the Arab in his search of immortality through such traits like chivalrousness and heroism immortalizes the vitality of the human body and its embodiment in the consciousness of society.

Inversio in Quranic Sentences Between its usage in Quran and Linguistic Interperatation

Talal Yahya

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 185-206

This paper deals first with the notion of inversion which means the subsitution of the position of the words in the sentences and the change of its parsing, indicating that parsing is linguistic phenomena specially in poetry.
Finally the paper discusses the views of some who thinks that there is no inversion in Quran at all.

Author: Saad ud-Din bin Omar al-Taftazani (Died in 791 A.H.)

n Mohammad al Ebadi

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 207-226

This paper studies an important Book of Grammar classified among as one of pedagogical books, entitled al-‘Irshad. This book was written by the celebrated scholar, Saad ud-Din bin Omar al-Taftazani. This study starts with a brief Introduction about this book and a description of the two editions of the book used by the study i.e. al-Awqaf edition, Baghdad and Mosul. Because of the characteristics of the former edition, it was adopted as the original source of the study. Then, we explained our method of study. We aimed to show this book as thoroughly investigated in order to be loyal to the Glorious Quran and the author of the book.

The Brammatical Interpretation to the Quranic Readings in the Book Mushkil E’rab al Kuran. By Maki Ibn Aby Taleb

Nawfal Ali Mageed

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 227-250

This paper deals with a linguistic, syntactic and terminological and terminological explanation showing it’s importance in guiding the QURANIC READINGS. I t also reviews important issues in which the explanation is used.
First-Implication: Studying the Quranic reading at Makee Bin Abe-Taleb about explanation by implication, we proved that make had mixed between kuffee and Basree styles as far as implication is concerned.
Second-The matization: Arabic language has a sspecial systerm of forming words and sentences. Any deviation from this system leads to the matization which same times force the syntaolition to explain his words and sentences. This the matization. however is used an purpose by the syntacticicn. Makee did not neglect this kind of explanation which helped him in construing the Quranic readings.
Third-Omittian: It is another feature of Arabic language which is of different kinds, such as the amittion of certain letter, pronunciation and sentences. We have chosen one or two headings, similar to that of Makee explanation, based an the disagreement among the scholars.
Fourth-Redundancy: In addittion to reduction, redundancies another feature of Arabic language. The speaker may use according to the situation, either more or less speech

Distributed Selective Dissemination of Information through Internet: A proposal Project to Mosul University

Mahmood S. Ismail

اداب الرافدین, السنة 35, العدد 40, الصفحة 251-270

To help users cope with information overload, selective Dissemination of information (SDI) will increasingly become an important to olin wide area of information systems. In an SDI service, users post their long term queries, called profiles at some SDI servers and continuously receive new, filtered documents. To scale up with the volume of information and the size of users population, we need a distributed SDI service with multiple servers.
In this paper I decribe the advent of XML as a standard for information exchange and the developmeat of query languages for XML data enables the development of more sophisticated filtering mechanisms that take structure information in to account.